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新时期党对知识分子政策的发展及其历史启示

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华夏棋牌  【TIYAO】XINSHIQIDANGDUIZHISHIFENZIZHENGCEDEFAZHANDAZHIJINGLILESANGEJIEDUAN:YISHIGAIGEKAIFANGZHICHU,TONGGUOBOLUANFANZHENGMINGQUEZHISHIFENZIDIWEIHELUOSHIZHISHIFENZIZHENGCE;ERSHISHANGSHIJI80NIANDAIZHONGHOUQIYIHOU,GAODUZHONGSHIZHISHIFENZIDEDIWEIZUOYONG,JIANLIJIANQUANGEXIANGXIANGGUANJIZHI,SHISHIKEJIAOXINGGUOZHANLVE;SANSHIJINRU21SHIJIYIHOU,BAZHISHIFENZIGONGZUONARURENCAIGONGZUO,QUELIRENCAIQIANGGUOZHANLVE。TONGGUODUIZHEIYIGUOCHENGDEKAOCHAYUFENXI,JIESHICHUGUANYUSHIDAIZHUTIYUQUANQIUFAZHANTAISHI、ZHISHIFENZIGAINIANYUJIEJISHUXINGDENGFANGMIANDELILUNQISHI。

华夏棋牌  【GUANJIANCI】XINSHIQI、ZHISHIFENZIZHENGCE、JIEJISHUXING、RENCAI

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华夏棋牌  YI、BOLUANFANZHENGYULUOSHIZHISHIFENZIZHENGCE

  XINSHIQIDANGDUIZHISHIFENZIZHENGCEDEDIAOZHENG,SHIJIANLIZAIXIQUZHANGQIYILAIZAIZHISHIFENZIWENTISHANGDEJINGYANJIAOXUNJICHUSHANGDE。ZAIXINZHONGGUOCHENGLIYIHOUZHI1978NIANDE29NIANJIAN,DANGDUIZHISHIFENZIZHENGCEYOUGUOZHENGQUEDETANSUO,BINGQUDELEYIDINGDELILUNHESHIJIANCHENGGUO。DANZAIXIANGDANGZHANGDESHIJIANNEI,DANGDEZHISHIFENZIGONGZUOSHOUDAOLE“ZUO”DECUOWUDEYINGXIANG,CHENGWEISHOU“ZUO”DECUOWUZHIPEISHIJIANZUIZHANG、SUNSHIZUIWEIYANZHONGDELINGYU。

  JIANGUOCHUQI,DANGZHUYAOZHENDUIJIUSHEHUIGUOLAIDEDAYUEERBAIDUOWANZHISHIFENZI,YIFANGMIANCONGJINGJIDIWEISHANGRENDINGQIWEINAOLILAODONGZHE,LINGYIFANGMIANBATAMENZHONGFEIGONGNONGJIATINGCHUSHENDEZHISHIFENZIGUIRUZICHANJIEJIHEXIAOZICHANFANCHOU,ZHIDINGLE“TUANJIE、JIAOYU、GAIZAO”DEZHENGCE,SHIZHISHIYINGXINSHEHUIDEXUYAO。ZHEIYIZHENGCEJIBENFAHUILEZHENGMIANZUOYONG,SHIGUANGDAZHISHIFENZIJINMITUANJIEZAIDANGDEZHOUWEI,JIJITOUSHENYUGEXIANGSHEHUIGAIGEHESHEHUIJIANSHE,JIDADITUIDONGLEWOGUOKEXUEJISHUDENGXIANGSHIYEDEFAZHAN。1956NIAN,SUIZHESHENGCHANZILIAOSUOYOUZHISHEHUIZHUYIGAIZAODEJIBENWANCHENG,WOGUOSHEHUIJIEGOUHEJIEJIGUANXIFASHENGZHUANBIAN,ZHISHIFENZIDEZHUANGKUANGYEFASHENGGENBENBIANHUA。WEISHIYINGZHEIZHONGBIANHUAHEJIJIANGJINRUQUANMIANJIANSHESHEHUIZHUYIDEXUYAO,DANGZHONGYANGZHAOKAIZHISHIFENZIHUIYI,ZHOUENLAIDAIBIAODANGZHONGYANGZUOBAOGAO,ZHICHUZHISHIFENZIDE“JUEDABUFENYIJINGCHENGWEIGUOJIAGONGZUORENYUAN,YIJINGWEISHEHUIZHUYIFUWU,YIJINGSHIGONGRENJIEJIDEYIBUFEN。”[1]ZHEIWUYISHIJIANGUOCHUQIDANGDUIZHISHIFENZIJIEJISHUXINGRENSHIDEQUANMIANZONGJIEHEKEXUEPANDUAN。DANZHEIYIJIELUNBINGMEIYOUCHENGWEIQUANDANGGONGSHI,CONG20SHIJI50NIANDAIHOUQIQI,YOUYUGUOJIGUONEIZHUDUOYINSUYINGXIANG,DANGZAIZHIDAOSIXIANGSHANGZHUJIANPIANLILEZHENGQUEGUIDAO,ZHISHIFENZIYOUBEIDAISHANGZICHANJIEJIMAOZI,ZHISHIFENZIZHENGCEYECHUXIANPIANCHA。JINGUANYOUGUOSHANGSHIJI60NIANDAICHUDANGDUIGUOMINJINGJIHEWENHUALINGYUZHENGCEDEDIAOZHENG,TEBIESHI1962NIANGUANGZHOUHUIYI,ZHOUENLAIZHONGXINKENDINGWOGUOZHISHIFENZIDEJUEDADUOSHUYIJINGSHUYULAODONGRENMINDEZHISHIFENZI,DANYOUYUDANGDEZHIDAOSIXIANGSHANGRIYI“ZUO”QING,ZHEIXIEDIAOZHENGZAITANHUAYIXIANHOUYOUHUIDAOLE“ZUO”DEGUIDAOSHANG。DAO“WENHUADAGEMING”SHIQI,ZHEIZHONG“ZUO”DECUOWUDADAODENGFENGZAOJIDEDIBU,BAGUANGDAZHISHIFENZIHUAGUIZICHANJIEJIZHENYING,ERJIYUPIPAN、PAICHIHEDAJI,BINGTONGGUO“LIANGGEGUJI”[2]WANQUANMOSHALE“WENHUADAGEMING”QIANSHIQINIANDEJIAOYUHEJIAOYUGONGZUODECHENGJI,“ZHISHIDEBIANZHI、ZHISHIFENZIDIWEIDEDIXIA,KEWEIDAOLEJIDIAN”[3]。ZHISHIFENZIDEJIJIXING、CHUANGZAOXINGSHOUDAOJIDACUOSHANG,SHIWOGUOKEXUEJISHU、WENHUAJIAOYUSHIYENAIZHIZHENGGESHEHUIZHUYISHIYEZAOSHOUZHONGDACUOZHE。

  FENSUI“SIRENBANG”YIHOU,ZAIXIQUZHANGQIYILAIZAIZHISHIFENZIWENTISHANGDEJINGYANJIAOXUNDEJICHUSHANG,WOMENDANGGENGJIASHENKEDIRENSHIDAO,MEIYOUKEXUEJISHUSHUIPINGDETIGAO,JIUBUNENGSHIXIANXIANDAIHUA,ERFAZHANKEXUEJISHU,BUZHUAJIAOYUBUXING,SHIXIANXIANDAIHUA,BIXUYOUZHISHI,YOURENCAI。DENGXIAOPINGZHICHU:“WOMENGUOJIAYAOGANSHANGSHIJIEXIANJINSHUIPING,CONGHEZHESHOUNI?WOXIANG,YAOCONGKEXUEHEJIAOYUZHESHOU。”[4]TA1977NIANFUCHUHOU,“ZHIDAOKEXUE、JIAOYUSHINANGAODE”[5],QUEZIGAOFENYONGZHUAKEJIAOGONGZUO,ZHUALUOSHIZHISHIFENZIZHENGCEDEGONGZUO。ZHEIYANGZUODEZHONGYAOYUANYIN,JIUZAIYUTAKANDAOLEZHISHIFENZIWENTIZAIXIANDAIHUAJIANSHEZHONGDEZHANLVESHANGDEZHONGYAOXING,KANDAOLEJIUZHENGZHISHIFENZIWENTISHANGDEZHANGQI“ZUO”QINGCUOWUZHEIXIANGRENWUDEJINPOXING。

华夏棋牌  FENSUI“SIRENBANG”YIHOUZHISHANGSHIJI80NIANDAIZHONGHOUQI,DANGDUIZHISHIFENZIZHENGCEDIAOZHENGDEHEXIN,JIUSHIBOLUANFANZHENGHELUOSHIZHENGCE,ZHONGDIANZAIYUJIUZHENGHEQINGLI“ZUO”QINGCUOWUYINGXIANG。

  SHOUXIAN,QIANGDIAO“ZUNZHONGZHISHI,ZUNZHONGRENCAI”,TUPO“LIANGGEGUJI”DEJINGU。1977NIAN5YUE,DENGXIAOPINGGAOZHANYUANZHUDITICHU:“YIDINGYAOZAIDANGNEIZAOCHENGYIZHONGKONGQI:ZUNZHONGZHISHI,ZUNZHONGRENCAI。” [6]ZHEICHENGWEIDANGZAIXINSHIQIDUIZHISHIFENZIZHENGCEDIAOZHENGDEQIBU。YAOZUODAO“ZUNZHONGZHISHI,ZUNZHONGRENCAI”,DANGSHIMIANLINDEZUIDAZHANGAI,JIUSHI“LIANGGEGUJI”DEWENTI。“LIANGGEGUJI”BUJINFOUDING“WENGE”QIANSHIQINIANDEJIAOYU,HAIBAZHISHIFENZIZONGTISHANGHUARUZICHANJIEJIFANCHOU。ERQIZHONGRENWEIZHISHIFENZIDEJIEJISHUXINGSHIZICHANJIEJIZHEIYIJIELUN,QISHIZAI1957NIANFANYOUPAIDOUZHENGKUODAHUAYIHOUJIUYIJINGBEIQUEDINGXIALAI,ZHANGQIYILAICHENGWEIDUIDAIZHISHIFENZIDE“ZUO”QINGCUOWUDELILUNJICHU。FENSUI“SIRENBANG”HOU,GUANGDAGANBUHEZHISHIFENZIQIANGLIEYAOQIUJIEJUE“LIANGGEGUJI”,DANANZHAODANGSHI“LIANGGEFANSHI”DEZHIDAOSIXIANG,ZHEIGEWENTIQUEBUNENGJIEJUE,YINWEIZHEISHIJINGGUOMAOZEDONGPISHI“TONGYI”DE。ZHENDUI“LIANGGEGUJI”DECUOWUJIELUN,1977NIAN8YUE,DENGXIAOPINGSHOUXIANZAI《GUANYUKEXUEHEJIAOYUGONGZUODEJIDIANYIJIAN》DETANHUAZHONG,CHANMINGLEYINGGAIRUHEZHENGQUEDIGUJIJIANGUOHOUSHIQINIANJIAOYUGONGZUODECHENGJI,RUHEZHENGQUEDIGUJIGUANGDAZHISHIFENZIDEJINBUHEGONGXIAN。9YUE,TAYOUZAI《JIAOYUZHANXIANDEBOLUANFANZHENG》DETANHUAZHONG,ZHIJIELEDANGDIPIPING“LIANGGEGUJI”SHIBUFUHESHIJIDE,BUNENG“BAJIBAIWAN、SHANGQIANWANZHISHIFENZIYIGUNZIDASI”,YAOQIUJIAOYUBUDETONGZHI“YAODULISIKAO”,BUYAO“DANZIXIAO,PAYOUGENZHEWOFAN‘CUOWU’” [7]。ZHEIZAIDANGSHISHIMAOZHEHENDAFENGXIANDE。TAHAISHUO:“《JIYAO》SHIMAOZEDONGTONGZHIHUALEQUANDE。MAOZEDONGTONGZHIHUALEQUAN,BUDENGYUSHUOLIMIANJIUMEIYOUSHIFEIWENTILE。”[8]ZHEIJIUZAIZHISHIFENZIWENTISHANGSHOUXIANTUPOLE“LIANGGEGUJI”DEJINGU。YOUCI,HOUMIANDEYOUGUANZHISHIFENZIJIEJISHUXINGDENGWENTIDEBOLUANFANZHENGGONGZUOJIUBIJIAOSHUNLILE。

  DIER,ZHONGSHEN“KEXUEJISHUSHISHENGCHANLI”HE“ZHISHIFENZISHIGONGRENJIEJIYIBUFEN”DEGUANDIAN。1978NIAN3YUE,DENGXIAOPINGZAIQUANGUOKEXUEDAHUISHANGKAIMUSHISHANGTICHULEZHEILIANGGEZHONGYAOGUANDIAN。DENGXIAOPINGDEZHEIPIANJIANGHUACHENGWEIQUEDINGWOMENDANGZAIXINSHIQIZHISHIFENZIZHENGCEDEGANGLINGXINGWENJIAN。KEXUEJISHUSHISHENGCHANLIZHEIYIWENTI,“SIRENBANG”CENGDIANDAOSHIFEI,SHENGCHENG“QIANGDIAOKEXUESHISHENGCHANLIZHONGDESHOUYAOYINSU,MUDESHIWEILEPAICHIJIEJIDOUZHENGZHEIGEGANG”,SHISUOWEI“WEISHENGCHANLILUN”、“KEXUEJISHUJUEDINGLUN”[9],ZHEIGAOLUANLERENMENDESIXIANG。ZAIZHEICIQUANGUOKEXUEDAHUISHANG,DENGXIAOPINGZHONGSHEN“KEXUEJISHUSHISHENGCHANLI”[10]ZHEIGEMAKESIZHUYIDEGUANDIAN,YIWEIZHECHENGRENCONGSHIKEXUEJISHUDERENSHUYULAODONGZHE,BUBIYIFUZAINAZHANG“PI”SHANG。DANJINJINCHENGRENZHISHIFENZISHILAODONGZHEHAIBUGOU,HAIBIXUYAOCONGZHENGZHISHANGMINGQUEJIEDINGZHISHIFENZIDEJIEJISHUXING,ZHEIYIWENTISHIDUIDAIZHISHIFENZIWENTIDEZHONGYAOLILUNJICHU。ZAITICHU“KEJISHISHENGCHANLI”DEJICHUSHANG,HUISHANGDENGXIAOPINGJINERMINGQUETICHUZHISHIFENZI“YIJINGSHIGONGRENJIEJIZIJIDEYIBUFEN” [11]DELUNDUAN,HUIFULE1956NIANZHONGGONGZHONGYANGGUANYUZHISHIFENZIWENTIHUIYISHANG,ZHOUENLAIDAIBIAODANGZHONGYANGZUOCHUDEDUIZHISHIFENZIJIEJIZHUANGKUANGDEZHENGQUERENSHI,JIUZHENGLEDUIDAIZHISHIFENZIDE“ZUO”DECUOWUGUANDIAN,CONGERTUIFANLE“LIANGGEGUJI”,SHIZHISHIFENZITUODIAOZICHANJIEJIMAOZI,WEISHIXIANDANGDEZHISHIFENZIZHENGCEHEGONGZUODEQUANMIANZHUANBIANDIANDINGLEZUIZHONGYAODELILUNJISHI。

  DISAN,JIANGZHISHIFENZIZUOWEISHEHUIZHUYIJIANSHEDEYIKAOLILIANGXIEJINXIANFA。ZHENDUIWOGUORENCAIDUANQUEQINGKUANGHEXIANDAIHUAJIANSHEXUYAO,DENGXIAOPINGYAOQIUQUANDANGDOUYAOZUNZHONGZHISHIFENZI。1977NIAN9YUE,ZAIQICAOQUANGUOKEXUEDAHUIJIANGHUASHI,DENGXIAOPINGJIUJIANJUEFANGQILECIQIANYIZHIYANYONGDEDUIZHISHIFENZI“TUANJIE、JIAOYU、GAIZAO”DETIFA。ZHIHOUTADUOCIQIANGDIAOZHISHIFENZIDEJUEDADUOSHUSHIHAODE、NAOLILAODONGYESHILAODONG。DAO1981NIANSHI,《GUANYUJIANGUOYILAIDANGDERUOGANLISHIWENTIDEJUEYI》DUIZHISHIFENZIDEDIWEIHEZUOYONGJICHUJIELUN:“YAOJIANJUESAOCHUZHANGQIJIANCUNZAIERZAI‘WENHUADAGEMING’QIJIANDENGFENGZAOJIDENEIZHONGQINGSHIJIAOYUKEXUEWENHUAHEQISHIZHISHIFENZIDEWANQUANCUOWUDEGUANNIAN,NULITIGAOJIAOYUKEXUEWENHUAZAIXIANDAIHUAJIANSHEZHONGDEDIWEIHEZUOYONG,MINGQUEKENDINGZHISHIFENZITONGGONGREN、NONGMINYIYANGSHISHEHUIZHUYISHIYEDEYIKAOLILIANG,MEIYOUWENHUAHEZHISHIFENZISHIBUKENENGJIANSHESHEHUIZHUYIDE”[12]。CIHOU,ZHISHIFENZIZAISHEHUIZHUYIJIANSHEZHONGSHIYIKAOLILIANGBEIZAIRU1982XIANFA,ZHEIZAIWOGUOSHISHIWUQIANLIDE,ZHISHIFENZIZHONGYUJIESHULE“ZONGSHIAIMA”(DENGXIAOPINGYU)HEZHIYUBEI“GAIZAO”DIWEIDELISHI。SUIHOU,DANGDUIZHISHIFENZIDIWEIHEZUOYONGDERENSHIYUELAIYUETIGAO。1984 NIAN10YUE,DENGXIAOPINGZAITANDAO《ZHONGGONGZHONGYANGGUANYUJINGJITIZHIGAIGEDEJUEDING》QIANGDIAO: ZHEIGEWENJIAN“ZUIZHONGYAODESHIDIJIUTIAO……JIUSHI‘ZUNZHONGZHISHI、ZUNZHONGRENCAI’BAGEZI,SHIQINGCHENGBAIDEGUANJIANJIUSHINENGBUNENGFAXIANRENCAI,NENGBUNENGYONGRENCAI。”[13]。1985NIAN,DENGXIAOPINGZAIJIAOYUGONGZUOHUIYISHANGJINYIBUTICHU:“WOMENGUOJIA,GUOLIDEQIANGRUO,JINGJIFAZHANHOUJINGDEDAXIAO,YUELAIYUEQUJUEYULAODONGZHEDESUZHI,QUJUEYUZHISHIFENZIDESHULIANGHEZHILIANG”[14]。

  DISI,TICHU“ZHENGZHISHANGYISHITONGREN,GONGZUOSHANGFANGSHOUSHIYONG,SHENGHUOSHANGGUANXINZHAOGU”DELUOSHIZHENGCEDEFANGZHEN。1978NIAN10YUE10RIDAO11YUE4RI,ZHONGYANGZUZHIBUZHUANMENZHAOKAILELIANGCILUOSHIZHISHIFENZIZHENGCEZUOTANHUI,HUYAOBANGDAIBIAOZHONGYANGXUANBU:“WOMENDANGZAIJIANGUOQIANHOUTICHULAIDE,YIJIUSHEHUIGUOLAIDEZHISHIFENZIWEIZHUYAODUIXIANGDETUANJIE、JIAOYU、GAIZAODEFANGZHEN,XIANZAIYIJINGBUSHIYONGLE。”[15]HUIHOUYIZHONGZUBUMINGYIFABU《GUANYULUOSHIZHISHIFENZIZHENGCEDEJIDIANYIJIAN》,TICHULIUDIANYAOQIU:YISHIDUIZHISHIFENZIDUIWUYINGDANGYOUYIGEZHENGQUEDEGUJI;ERSHIJIXUZUOHAOFUCHAHEPINGFANZHAOXUEYUAN、JIA、CUOANGONGZUO;SANSHICHONGFENXINREN,FANGSHOUSHIYONG,ZUODAOYOUZHIYOUQUANYOUZE;SISHIDIAOZHENGYONGFEISUOXUE,ZUODAORENJINQICAI,CAIJINQIYONG;WUSHINULIGAISHANGONGZUOTIAOJIANHESHENGHUOTIAOJIAN;LIUSHIJIAQIANGLINGDAO,GAIJINZUOFENG。[16]ZHEIYIWENJIANDUIYUTUIDONGGEDILUOSHIZHISHIFENZIZHENGCEJUYOUHENDADEZHIDAOYIYI。LUOSHIDEJUTIZHENGCEZHUYAOBAOKUOPINGFANYUANJIACUOAN;QINGTUI“WENGE”SHIQIDECHACHAOWUZI;TUIHAI“WENGE”ZHONGBEIJIZHANDEFANGCHAN;JIEJUEZHISHIFENZIRUDANGNANWENTI;HUIFUZHUANYEJISHUZHICHENG,BAOZHENGZHUANYEKEYANSHIJIAN;GAIBIANYONGFEISUOXUE、YONGFEISUOZHANGDEZHUANGKUANG;GAISHANGONGZUOHESHENGHUOTIAOJIANDENGDENG。1981NIAN,ZHONGYANGZHUANMENCHENGLIZHISHIFENZIGONGZUOLIANXIXIAOZU,ZHONGYANGZUZHIBUHEGEDIDANGWEIZUZHIBUMENCHENGLILEZHISHIFENZIGONGZUOBANGONGSHI,ZHUANMENFUZELUOSHIZHISHIFENZIZHENGCE、JIEJUELISHIYILIUWENTI。WEIJINYIBUXIAOCHUDUIZHISHIFENZIDEPIANJIAN,1982NIAN1YUE,ZHONGGONGZHONGYANGFACHU《GUANYUJIANCHAYICIZHISHIFENZIGONGZUODETONGZHI》,YAOQIUDUIZHISHIFENZIZHENZHENGZUODAO“ZHENGZHISHANGYISHITONGREN,GONGZUOSHANGFANGSHOUSHIYONG,SHENGHUOSHANGGUANXINZHAOGU”[17]。TONGSHI,CONG1982NIANDAO1986NIAN,DANGZHONGYANGLIANXUJINXINGSICIZHENDUILUOSHIZHISHIFENZIZHENGCEDEQUANGUOXINGJIANCHA,HAIBUDUANZHIDINGHEBANBUYOUGUANZHISHIFENZIDEZHENGCEWENJIAN,1977NIANZHI1988NIANJIUYOUJIN600GE[18]。

华夏棋牌  ZHEIDUANSHIQIDEBOLUANFANZHENGHELUOSHIZHENGCEDEGEXIANGGONGZUO,SHIDEZHISHIFENZIDEGEFANGMIANZHUANGKUANGDEDAOHENDAGAISHAN。ZHENGZHIDAIYUSHANG,1979NIANZHI1989NIANQUANGUOGONGYOU275WANYOUXIUZHISHIFENZIJIARUZHONGGUOGONGCHANDANG,YIYOU100DUOWANZHUANYEJISHUGANBUDANRENGEJIDANGZHENGLINGDAOZHIWU[19]。GONGZUOTIAOJIANSHANG,1989NIANDI,YOU1948WANRENPINGPINLEZHUANYEJISHUZHICHENG,ZHANZHUANYEJISHURENYUANZONGSHUDE84%。GUOJIANULIZENGJIADUIKEJIJIAOYUDENGFANGMIANDETOURU,1978NIANZHI1988NIAN,YONGYUWENJIAO、KEYAN、WEISHENGSHIYEDEFEIYONGZENGJIALE3.3BEI。[20]ZHEIYOULIDIDIAODONGLEZHISHIFENZICANYUXIANDAIHUAJIANSHEDEJIJIXING。“QIWU”QIJIANDEGUOJIAZHONGDIANKEJIGONGGUANGONGZUOZHENGZAIZHUBUZHANKAI,GUOJIAZIRANKEXUEJIJINKAISHIZAIJICHUYANJIUHEBUFENYINGYONGLINGYUZHONGSHIXING,“XINGHUOJIHUA”KAISHIFAHUIZHONGYAOZUOYONG。ZHEIYEDAILAILESHANGSHIJI80NIANDAIZHONGGUOSIXIANGWENHUADEFUSUHEJIANQUHUOYUE,CHULEZHENLIBIAOZHUNHERENDAOZHUYIDETAOLUNWAI,DANGSHIWENXUE、ZHEXUEHESHIXUELINGYUHAIYOUSHANGHENWENXUE、FANSIWENXUE、ZHUTIXINGYIJICHUANTONGWENHUAYUXIANDAIHUAGUANXIDETAOLUNDENG,DOUJINKOUSIXIANGJIEFANG、BOLUANFANZHENGDEZHUTI,CHANSHENGLEJUDADEGONGGONGYINGXIANGLI。

华夏棋牌  DANGRAN,YOUYUZHANGQI“ZUO”DESIXIANGYINGXIANG,ZHISHIFENZIWENTISHANGDEBOLUANFANZHENGYUDAOLAIZISHEHUIHEDANGNEIDEYIXIEZULI,YIZHIYUDAO1984NIAN10YUE,DENGXIAOPINGZAIHUIJIANHUARENKEXUEJIASHIHAISHUO:“ZAIYIXIELAOGANBUSIXIANGZHONGHAIMEIYOUWANQUANJIEJUEZHEIGEWENTI。ZHONGGUOZHISHIFENZIWENTISHIYIGETESHUDEWENTI,SUOYIYAOZHUANMENJIANG。ZHEIGEWENTIHENPOQIE。”[21]DANJINGGUOJINIANJIANDENULI,ZUNZHONGZHISHI、ZUNZHONGZHISHIFENZIDEGUANNIANHESHEHUIFENGQIKAISHIZHUBUXINGCHENG。

  DAODANGDESHISANDAQIANHOU,BOLUANFANZHENGYIYISHANGDEZHISHIFENZIZHENGCELUOSHIGONGZUOJIBENJIESHU,DANGDEZHISHIFENZIZHENGCEFASHENGLEQUANMIANDEZHUANBIAN,FANGQILEJIANGUOCHUQIDE“TUANJIE、JIAOYU、GAIZAO”DEZHENGCE,XINGCHENGLE“ZUNZHONGZHISHI,ZUNZHONGRENCAI”WEIHEXINDEZHISHIFENZIZHENGCE。20SHIJI80NIANDAIMO90NIANDAICHUYIHOU,DANGDEZHISHIFENZIZHENGCEKAISHITIXIANCHUXINDETESE、JINRUXINDEFAZHANJIEDUAN。

  ER、GAODUZHONGSHIZHISHIFENZIDEZUOYONGYUYIXILIEXIANGGUANJIZHIDEJIANLIJIANQUAN

华夏棋牌  20SHIJI80NIANDAIHOUQI,TEBIESHI1992NIANDENGXIAOPINGNANFANGTANHUAYILAI,ZHONGGUODESHEHUIZHUANXINGYIJINGCONGSIXIANGGUANNIANCENGMIANQUANMIANJINRUDAOSHIJIANCAOZUOCENGMIAN,“YIJINGJIJIANSHEWEIZHONGXIN”BUZAISHIYIJUKOUHAOHEYULUNZHUNBEI,ERSHILUOSHIDAOQUANGUOSHANGXIADESHIJIANXINGWEIYUSHENGHUOFANGSHI;YUJINGJIJIANSHEMIQIEXIANGGUANDEKEJIZHISHI,YEBUZHISHIZAIKOUHAOSHANGCHENGWEISHENGCHANLI,ERQIEZAIJINGJIFAZHANYUSHEHUIBIANGEZHONGCHENGWEISHIJIDEDIYISHENGCHANLI,ZHISHIHEZUOWEIZHISHIDECHUANGZAOZHE、CHUANBOZHE、YUNYONGZHEDEZHISHIFENZIDEZHONGYAOSHEHUIJIAZHI,ZAISHICHANGJINGJIZHONGRIYITUXIAN。ZHISHIFENZIWUKETIDAIDEZUOYONGSHOUDAOQUANDANGDEGAODUZHONGSHI,RUJIANGZEMINSUOYAN:“TONGLISHISHANGRENHESHIQIXIANGBIJIAO,ZHONGGUORENMINCONGLAIMEIYOUXIANGJINTIANZHEIYANG,DUIZIJIDEZHISHIFENZITICHURUCIGUANGFAN、RUCIPOQIEDEYAOQIU”。[22]

  20SHIJI80NIANDAIHOUQIYILAIZHIZHISHANGSHIJIMO,DANGDEZHISHIFENZIZHENGCEDEZHUYAOTEDIANSHI:GAODUZHONGSHIZHISHIFENZIDEDIWEIHEZUOYONG,JIANLIJIANQUANYIXILIEBAOZHANGJIZHIHEJILIJIZHI。LUOSHIZHENGCEDEZHONGDIAN,CONGJIEJUEZHENGZHIWENTIZHUANDAOGAISHANGONGZUOTIAOJIANHETIGAOSHENGHUODAIYUSHANGLAI。

  SHOUXIAN,CONGLILUNRENSHISHANGFUYUZHISHIFENZIYIGENGGAODEDIWEIHEZUOYONG。1988NIAN,ZAI“KEXUEJISHUSHISHENGCHANLI”JICHUSHANG,DENGXIAOPINGJINYIBUTICHU“KEXUEJISHUSHIDIYISHENGCHANLI”。ZAI20SHIJI80NIANDAIZHONGHOUQISHI,SHIJIEFANWEINEIDEKEJIFAZHANCHENGXIANCHUXINDETAISHI,FADAGUOJIAFENFENKAIZHANZHANLVEXINGGAOXINJISHUDEYANFA。1986NIAN3YUE,WANGDAHENG、WANGGANCHANG、YANGJIACHI、CHENFANGYUNSIWEIZHUMINGKEXUEJIASHANGSHUDENGXIAOPING,TICHU《GUANYUZHUIZONGYANJIUWAIGUOZHANLVEXINGGAOJISHUFAZHANDEJIANYI》,TAMENYISHIDAOSHIJIANDEJINPO:RUGUOZHUAWANLE,DENGYUZIGANLUOHOU,ERQIENANYUZAIQI。DENGXIAOPINGLIJIJIUCIZUOCHUPISHI:“CISHIYISUZUOJUEDUAN,BUKETUOYAN。”[23]DANGZHONGYANG、GUOWUYUANANZHAODENGXIAOPINGDEPISHI,PIZHUNSHISHILE《GAOJISHUYANJIUFAZHANJIHUA》(JI“863”JIHUA),BOKUAN100GEYI,QIDONGLEXINXI、SHENGWUJISHU、XINCAILIAO、ZHIZAOGUOCHENGZIDONGHUA、NENGYUAN、HANGTIAN、JIGUANGDENGQIGELINGYUDE15GEZHUTIXIANGMUDEGONGGUAN。YOUCI,DENGXIAOPINGDUIKEXUEJISHUDEJUDAZUOYONGYOULEJINYIBUDERENSHI,BINGYU1988NIAN9YUETICHU:“MAKESISHUOGUO,KEXUEJISHUSHISHENGCHANLI,SHISHIZHENGMINGZHEIHUAJIANGDEHENDUI。YIWOKAN,KEXUEJISHUSHIDIYISHENGCHANLI。”[24]ZHEIYILUNDUANFAZHANLEMAKESIZHUYIDEGUANDIAN,SHIZHENDUIWOGUOSHEHUIZHUYIXIANDAIHUAJIANSHEXINJIEDUANDEXIANSHIXUYAO,CONGZONGJIEDANGSHIKEXUEJISHUDEJIJUFAZHANHEDUISHEHUIJINBUDEJUDAZUOYONGZHONGTICHULAIDE。

  1992NIAN,CONG“KEXUEJISHUSHIDIYISHENGCHANLI”DEGUANDIANCHUFA,JIANGZEMINYOUJINYIBUTICHUZHISHIFENZISHI“XIANJINSHENGCHANLIDEKAITUOZHE”。MIANDUISHIJIEFANWEINEIKEXUEJISHUDEJILIEJINGZHENG,1992 NIANDANGDESHISIDABAOGAOGAIKUOJIANSHEYOUZHONGGUOTESEDESHEHUIZHUYILILUNDEZHONGYAONEIRONG,DIYICIBADENGXIAOPINGGUANYU“KEXUEJISHUSHIDIYISHENGCHANLI”DELUNDIANLIEJINLAI,BINGJINYIBUFAZHANLEDUIZHISHIFENZIDIWEIHEZUOYONGDERENSHI,RENWEIZHISHIFENZI“SHIXIANJINSHENGCHANLIDEKAITUOZHE”,“NENGBUNENGCHONGFENFAHUIGUANGDAZHISHIFENZIDECAINENG,ZAIHENDACHENGDUSHANGJUEDINGZHEWOMENMINZUDESHENGSHUAIHEXIANDAIHUAJIANSHEDEJINCHENG。”[25]ZHEIYILUNDUANJIANGZHISHIFENZIDEDIWEIMINGQUETISHENGDAOLEXINDECENGCI,JINYIBUQIANGDIAOLEZHISHIFENZIZUOWEI“XIANJINSHENGCHANLIDEKAITUOZHE”ZAIGONGRENJIEJIZHONGSUOJUYOUDETESHUZHONGYAODIWEI。DAO1997 NIANDANGDESHIWUDASHI,DANGDUIZHISHIFENZICHULEQIANGDIAO“KEXUEJISHUDEKAITUOZHE”,YOUFUYUQI“XIANJINSIXIANGDECHUANBOZHE”、“‘SIYOUGONGMIN’DEPEIYUZHE”HE“YOUXIUJINGSHENCHANPINDESHENGCHANZHE” [26],TUCHULEZHISHIFENZIDESHEHUI、WENHUAGONGNENG,JINYIBUFENGFULEYOUGUANZHISHIFENZIZUOYONGLILUNDENEIRONG。

华夏棋牌  DIER,JIANLIJIANQUANYIXILIEYOUGUANZHISHIFENZIDEBAOZHANGJIZHIHEJILIJIZHI。SHANGSHIJI80NIANDAIMOYILAI,DANGZHONGYANGGAODUZHONGSHIJIANLIJIANQUANJILIZHISHIFENZIFAHUIYOUSHIDETIZHIJIZHI。YIJIANGZEMINWEIHEXINDEZHONGYANGLINGDAOJITIBENZHE“SHAOSHUOKONGHUA,DUOBANSHISHI”DEJINGSHEN,ZHELIGAISHANHETIGAOZHISHIFENZIDEWUZHIDAIYU。1992 NIANDANGDESHISIDAZHICHU:YAO“XIAJUEXINCAIQUZHONGDAZHENGCEHECUOSHI,JIJIGAISHANZHISHIFENZIDEGONGZUO、XUEXIHESHENGHUOTIAOJIAN,DUIYOUTUCHUGONGXIANDEZHISHIFENZIJIYUZHONGJIANG,BINGXINGCHENGGUIFANHUADEJIANGLIZHIDU。”[27]WEIGUANCHEZHEIYIJINGSHEN,ZAIGONGZUODAIYUFANGMIAN,1993NIAN《ZHONGHUARENMINGONGHEGUOJIAOSHIFA》GUIDING,“JIAOSHIDEPINGJUNGONGZISHUIPINGYINGDANGBUDIYUHUOZHEGAOYUGUOJIAGONGWUYUANDEPINGJUNGONGZISHUIPING,BINGZHUBUTIGAO”[28]。CIHOU,JIAOSHIDEDAIYUBUDUANTIGAO,DAOSHIJIZHIJIAOSHI,GAOXIAO、ZHONGXUEHEXIAOXUEJIAOSHIDEPINGJUNGONGZIFENBIEBI1995NIANQIANZENGJIA179.8%、100.4%HE93.7%,CHENGZHENJIAOSHIJIATINGRENJUNZHUFANGMIANJICONG1993NIANSHIDIYUQUANGUOPINGJUNSHUIPINGDE6.90PINGFANGMITIGAODAO2000NIANDE10.81PINGFANGMI,CHAOGUOLETONGQICHENGZHENJUMINDEPINGJUNSHUIPING[29]。ZAIJIANGLIFANGMIAN,1999NIANDANGZHONGYANGLONGZHONGBIAOZHANGWEI“LIANGDANYIXING”ZUOCHUTUCHUGONGXIANDEKEJIZHUANJIA,SHOUYUGONGXUNJIANGZHANG。YUANLONGPING、WUWENJUN、HUANGKUN、WANGXUANSIWEIZHUMINGKEXUEJIAXIANHOUBEISHOUYU“GUOJIAZUIGAOKEXUEJISHUJIANG”。HAIYOU“ZHANGJIANGXUEZHEJIANGLIJIHUA”、“ZHENGFUTESHUJINTIEZHIDU”DENG,SHIZHISHIFENZIDEDAIYUHESHEHUIDIWEIXIANZHUTIGAO。DANGHEZHENGFUBUDUANJIADAJIAOYUKEYANTOURU,“JIUWU”QIJIAN,JIAOYUJINGFEIPINGJUNMEINIANZENGZHANG15.56%,GAOYUGUOMINJINGJIDEZENGZHANGSUDU[30]。DANGHEZHENGFUHAIGAIGEWANSHANJIAOYUKEJITIZHI、GAIGEGANBURENSHIZHIDU、JIANLIHEWANSHANGUOJIACHUANGXINTIXI、CHUTAIHEWANSHANXIANGGUANFALVFAGUI。GEZHONGJIJINZIZHU,XUESHU、XUEKEPINGGUZHIDU,GUONEIWAIWENHUAHUOXUESHUJIAOLIUDENGZHUBUJIANLIJIANQUANQILAI。QIZHONGDERENCAIHELILIUDONGZHENGCE,ZHUBUDAPOGUOQUJIHUAJINGJITIZHIXIADUIRENCAIDEXIANZHI。

  DISAN,JUEDINGSHISHIKEJIAOXINGGUOZHANLVE。1993NIAN,LIANHEGUOJIAOKEWENZUZHISHOUCIFABIAODE《SHIJIEKEXUEBAOGAO》ZHICHU:DANGJINSHIJIESHANGFADAGUOJIAHEFAZHANZHONGGUOJIADECHAJUSHIZHISHIDECHAJU,QIANGDIAOMEIYOUZHISHIDECHUANBOJIUBUHUIYOUJINGJIDECHIXUFAZHAN。ZHEIZHONGQINGKUANGXIA,XUDUOFAZHANZHONGGUOJIAFENFENTICHU“LAODONGLIXINGGUO”、“ZIYUANXINGGUO”DENGZHANLVE。MIANDUISHIJIEFAZHANDASHI,GENJUDUIKEJIHEJIAOYUDEZHANLVEDIWEIDEXINRENSHI,1995NIAN5YUE,JIANGZEMINZAIQUANGUOKEXUEJISHUDAHUISHANGTICHU“KEJIAOXINGGUO”ZHANLVE,TASHUO:“ZHAOKAIZHEICIDAHUIDEZHUYAOMUDE,JIUSHIWEILEDONGYUANQUANDANGQUANGUOGEZURENMIN,QUANMIANLUOSHIDENGXIAOPINGTONGZHIGUANYUKEXUEJISHUSHIDIYISHENGCHANLIDESIXIANG”,“ZAIQUANGUOXINGCHENGSHISHIKEJIAOXINGGUOZHANLVEDERECHAO,JINYIBUJIEFANGHEFAZHANKEJISHENGCHANLI,JIJICUJINJINGJIJIANSHEZHUANDAOYIKAOKEJIJINBUHETIGAOLAODONGZHESUZHIDEGUIDAO。”[31] WEIGUANCHELUOSHI“KEJIAOXINGGUO”ZHANLVE,GUOJIACAIQUYIXILIEZHONGYAOJUCUO。11YUE,ZHONGGUOGAODENGJIAOYUZHENGSHIQIDONG“211GONGCHENG”[32],JIEFAZHANYIPIYILIUDAXUEZHIJI,YICUJINHEDAIDONGSUOYOUGAODENGYUANXIAODEFAZHAN。TONGSHI,GUOJIAZHONGSHIQUYUJINGJIJIANSHE,TEBIESHIKEJIGONGYEYUANQUJIANSHE,TUIDONGKEJICHENGGUOXUNSUCHANYEHUA,CUISHENGLEZHONGGUANCUNSHIYANQUZHEIYANGDEYIGAOXINJISHUCHANYEWEIHEXINDEZHISHICHANYEQUNYUANQU。GUOJIATONGGUOSHISHI973JIHUA、863JIHUA、ZHONGDAKEJIGONGGUANJIHUADENGYIXILIEKEJIJIHUA,CUCHENGDALIANGCHUANGXINXINGCHENGGUOYONGXIAN,RUCANJIAGUOJIRENLEIJIYINZUJIHUA、WANCHENGZHONGGUOCHAOJIZAJIAOSHUIDAOJIYINZUGONGZUOKUANGJIATU、ZHUANJIYINYANG、NIU,ZHUANJIYINKANGCHONGMIANPEIYUCHENGGONGDENGDENG[33]。

华夏棋牌  ZHEIYISHIQI,SHEHUIZHUYISHICHANGJINGJIDEJIANLI,DUIZHISHIFENZICHANSHENGLEJIQISHENKEDEYINGXIANG。YIFANGMIAN,SHICHANGJINGJIDEJIANLIDAPOLEJIUTIZHIDUIZHISHIFENZIDESHUFU,SHIQIZIZHUXINGHEDULIXINGJIDAZENGQIANG,YOULEZHIJIEJIERUSHEHUIJINGJISHENGHUODEGUANGKUOTIANDI,YIDUCHUXIANDE“NAOTIDAOGUA”XIANXIANGHENKUAIFASHENGZHUANBIAN,BINGQIESUIZHEZHISHIJINGJICHULUDUANNI,YUELAIYUEDUODEZHISHIJINGYINGCHENGWEI“ZHIBENJIA”,CHANSHENGLEJIDADESHEHUIXIAOYING。LINGYIFANGMIAN,SHICHANGJINGJITIAOJIANXIA,ZHENGGESHEHUIDELIYIQUNTIHEJIAZHIGUANRIYIDUOYUANHUA,DANGDUIZHISHIFENZIDEZHENGZHIYAOQIUGENGJIAFUHESHIJI,JIANYANZHIJIUSHI:ZAIAIGUOZHUYI、SHEHUIZHUYITEBIESHIAIGUOZHUYIDEQIZHIXIA,ZAIZHONGGUOGONGCHANDANGDELINGDAOXIA,WEIZHONGHUAMINZUDEFUXINGWEIXIANDAIHUAJIANSHESHIYE,SHIZHANCAIHUA,JIANGONGLIYE,ERBUZAIYI“FAZHANDANGYUAN,PEIYANGGANBU”DESILULAIDUIDAI。ZAIRENWENSHEKELINGYU,MAKESIZHUYIBUZAIJUTIHUAWEIYISHIXINGTAIBIAOQIAN,QUZHIJIEGANYUHECAIJUEXUESHUGUANDIANHEZHENGMING,BUTONGDEZHENGZHILICHANGHEWENHUASUQIUDEZHISHIFENZIQUNTIFENFENCHUXIAN,RUXINGUOXUE、MINZUZHUYI、XINZUOPAI、ZIYOUZHUYIDENG,RENWENSHEKEZHISHIFENZIZAISHICHANGJINGJI、MINZHUFAZHIDENGFANGMIANJINXINGLEYOUYIDEKAITUOXINGDELILUNTANSUO,WEIGAIGEKAIFANGQIDAOLELILUNXIANDAOZUOYONG。

  YUCITONGSHI,GUOJIFANWEINEIDUIRENCAIDEZHENGDUORIYIJILIE,SHIJIZHIJIAOZHISHI,WOMENYOUMIANLINZHEXINDETIAOZHAN。

华夏棋牌  SAN、BAZHISHIFENZIGONGZUONARURENCAIGONGZUO,QUELIRENCAIQIANGGUOZHANLVE

华夏棋牌  21SHIJI,ZHISHIJINGJIFANGXINGWEIAI,QUANQIUHUAQUSHISHENRUFAZHAN。ZHISHIJINGJISHIYIZHISHIJIQICHANPINDESHENGCHAN、LIUTONGHEXIAOFEIWEIZHUDAODEJINGJI,ZHISHIJINGJISHIDAIDEZHUYAOTEZHENGJIUSHICHUANGXINJIANGCHENGWEISHEHUIJINGJIFAZHANDEZHUYAODONGLIHEGUANJIANYINSU。JINJINSHOUGUOGAODENGJIAOYUHUOZHEZHUANYEJIAOYU、JUYOUMOUYIFANGMIANDEZHUANMENZHISHIDEREN,YIJINGBUNENGMANZUSHEHUIFAZHANDEXUYAO,GUONEIXIANDAIHUAJIANSHEDUIYUZHISHICHUANGXIN、JISHUCHUANGXINDEXUYAOYUELAIYUEPOQIE,DUIJUYOUCHUANGXINNENGLIDERENCAIXUQIUYUELAIYUEPOQIE。TEBIESHISUIZHEQUANQIUHUAQUSHISHENRUFAZHAN,GEGUOZHIJIANDERENCAIZHENGDUOZHANYEYUYANYULIE。YOUYUDUOFANGMIANYUANYIN,WOGUOZAIQUANQIURENCAIJINGZHENGZHONGHAICHUYULIESHI,MIANLINZHERENCAIWAILIUHERENCAIKUIFADEYANJUNXINGSHI。ZAI1978NIANZHI2002NIANDI,ZHONGGUOCHUGUOLIUXUESHENGYUEYOU58WANREN,HUIGUODEZHIYOU15WANDUOREN,JINZHANCHUGUOLIUXUERENYUANDE25.86%。WOGUOJIARUWTOQIANHOU,CHUXIANLEDISANCIRENCAIWAILIUGAOFENG,QIZUIDADETEDIANZAIYU“ZAIZHI”LIUSHI,QIECHUGUOMUDEDICHENGDUOYUANHUAQUSHI,FADAGUOJIAHEYIXIEZHUNFADAGUOJIADOUCHENGWEIRENCAIWAILIUDEMUBIAODI。[34]ZHEIJIUPOQIEYAOQIUWOMENBIXUSHIYINGXINDEXINGSHI,JINYIBUWANSHANDANGDEZHISHIFENZIZHENGCE。

  SUIZHESHEHUIFAZHAN,DUIZHISHIFENZINEIHANDERENSHIJINYIBUSHENHUA。CHUANTONGYIYISHANGDUIZHISHIFENZIDEJIEDINGSHI:JUYOUJIAOGAOWENHUASHUIPING、YICHUANGZAO、CHUANBO、YINGYONGKEXUEWENHUAZHISHIZUOWEIMOUSHENGSHOUDUANDENAOLILAODONGZHE。ZAIZHENGCESHANGHESHIJIANZHONG,TONGCHANGSHIYISUOSHOUJIAOYUNIANXIAN、XUELI、ZHIYEDENGJUTIZHIBIAOZUOWEIJIEDINGZHISHIFENZIDEBIAOZHUN。ZUOWEIZHENGCEDUIXIANG,ZHEIYIJIEDINGZAIJIANGUOCHUQIHAIJUYOUKECAOZUOXING,DANSUIZHESHEHUIFAZHAN,TEBIESHIXINSHIJILAILINSHI,YIJINGBIANDENANYICAOZUO。ZHEISHIYINWEI,YIFANGMIAN,WOGUOZHONG、GAODENGJIAOYUDEDAZHONGHUA、PUJIHUACHENGDURIYITIGAO,ZHISHIFENZIQUNTIRIYIPANGDAHUA;LINGYIFANGMIAN,SUIZHESHEHUIFENGONGHEZHIYEXUANZEDEKUOZHANYURONGHUI,ZHANGWOZHISHIZHERIYIFENHUAYUGEXINGGEYEZHONG,2002NIANDANGDESHILIUDAZHICHU,ZAISHEHUIBIANGEZHONGXINCHUXIANLE“MINYINGKEJIQIYEDECHUANGYERENYUANHEJISHURENYUAN、SHOUPINYUWAIZIQIYEDEGUANLIJISHURENYUAN、GETIHU、SIYINGQIYEZHU、ZHONGJIEZUZHIDECONGYERENYUAN、ZIYOUZHIYERENYUANDENGSHEHUIJIECENG”[35]。YINCI,DANGYUELAIYUEDUODERENCHENGWEIJUYOUXIANGDANGZHISHIDELAODONGZHE,DANGNAOLILAODONGZHEFENHUADAOFUZADESHEHUIJIECENGZHONGSHI,ZHISHIFENZIDENEIHANXUYAOZHONGXINRENSHI,ZHISHIFENZIZHENGCEDEDUIXIANGBIXUYUYIDIAOZHENG。

  XINSHIJIDANGDUIZHISHIFENZIZHENGCEDEWANSHANZHUYAOYOULIANGDIAN:YISHIZHENGCEDEDUIXIANGZHUANXIANGRENCAI,RENCAISHIZHI“JUYOUJIAOGAOCAIGANHENENGLI,ZAIMOULINGYU、XINGYEHUOGONGZUOZHONGNENGGOUYONGCHUANGZAOXINGLAODONGWEISHEHUIFAZHANHERENLEIJINBUZUOCHUJIAODAGONGXIANDEREN”,ZHEIJIUYIWEIZHEZHISHIFENZIGONGZUODEDUIXIANGBUZAIWEIXUELI、SHENFENHEZHICHENG,ERZHUZHONGDESHIZHISHI、NENGLIHEJIXIAO。ERSHIZHENGCEDENEIRONGCONGZHEZHONGLUOSHIZHENGZHI、SHENGHUODAIYU,WANQUANZHUANXIANGDUIYURENCAIDEPEIYANG、SHIYONGHEXIYIN。

  SHOUXIAN,QIANGDIAOZHISHIFENZIZHENGCEDEHEXINSHI“PEIYANGRENCAI、YONGHAORENCAI、XIYINRENCAI”,TICHU“RENCAIZIYUANSHIDIYIZIYUAN”DEZHANLVESIXIANG。2000NIAN12YUEDEQUANGUOTONGZHANGONGZUOHUIYISHANG,JIANGZEMINMINGQUEZHICHU,XINSHIJIZHISHIFENZIGONGZUODEHEXINSHIRENCAIWENTI,“DANGJINSHIJIE,ZONGHEGUOLIJINGZHENGSHUODAODIJIUSHIRENCAIJINGZHENG。QUANMIANZUOHAOZHISHIFENZIGONGZUO,CHONGFENFAHUIGUANGDAZHISHIFENZIDEZUOYONG,SHIQUANDANGTONGZHIHEDANGDESUOYOUGONGZUOBUMENDEYIXIANGZHONGYAORENWU”,YAOSHIYINGZHEIXIEXINQINGKUANG、XINBIANHUA,JINYIBULUOSHIHEWANSHANDANGDEZHISHIFENZIZHENGCE,ZHEZHONGZUOHAO“PEIYANGRENCAI、YONGHAORENCAI、XIYINRENCAI”DEGONGZUO[36]。ZAIZHEI“SANCAI”ZHENGCEZHONG,PEIYANGRENCAISHIJICHU,XIYINRENCAISHIZHONGDIAN,YONGHAORENCAISHIGUANJIAN。2001NIAN8YUE,JIANGZEMINYOUTICHULE“RENCAIZIYUANSHIDIYIZIYUAN”DEZHANLVESIXIANG,CHANMINGLERENCAISHISHENGCHANLIZHONGZUIJUYOUJUEDINGXINGDELILIANG,BINGQIANGDIAO:“RENCAIWENTI,GUANXIDANGHEGUOJIADEXINGWANGFADAHEZHANGZHIJIUAN” ,YAOGENGXINRENCAIGONGZUODESIXIANGGUANNIAN、YAOTANSUOGENGJIALINGHUODERENCAIGONGZUOSILU、YINGZAOFUHERENCAICHENGZHANGTEDIANDEHUANJING、YAOJINYIBUZUOHAODANGDEZHISHIFENZIGONGZUO[37]。ZHEIYISIXIANGWEIXINSHIJIDANGDUIZHISHIFENZIZHENGCEDEJINYIBUWANSHANDIANDINGLESHENKEDELILUNJICHU。2002NIANDANGDESHILIUDAFAZHANLE“ZUNZHONGZHISHI、ZUNZHONGRENCAI”DESIXIANG,TICHUBIXU“ZUNZHONGLAODONG、ZUNZHONGZHISHI、ZUNZHONGRENCAI、ZUNZHONGCHUANGZAO”[38]DEZHONGDAFANGZHEN,NULIWEIZHISHIFENZIYINGZAOLIANGHAOHUANJING。

  DIER,QIANGDIAORENCAIJINGZHENGYEBAOKUOWENHUARENCAIDEJINGZHENG,TICHUZHEXUESHEHUIKEXUERENCAITONGYANGZHONGYAO。SUIZHEWENHUAJIANSHEZAIGUOJIAZHENGTIJIANSHEHEFAZHANZHONGDEZHONGYAOXINGYUELAIYUETUCHU,ZHENDUISHEHUISHANGCUNZAIDEQINGSHIZHEXUESHEHUIKEXUEDEXIANXIANG,2001NIAN8YUE,JIANGZEMINZAIBEIDAIHEHUIJIANBUFENGUOFANGKEJIZHUANJIAHESHEHUIKEXUEZHUANJIASHI,QIANGDIAO“ZHEXUESHEHUIKEXUEDEYANJIUNENGLIHECHENGGUO,YESHIZONGHEGUOLIDEZHONGYAOZUCHENGBUFEN”,TASHOUCITICHU“SIGETONGYANGZHONGYAO”DESIXIANG,JIZAIRENSHIHEGAIZAOSHIJIE、PEIYANGGAOSHUIPINGKEXUEJIA、TIGAOQUANMINZUKEXUESUZHI、RENYONGHAOKEXUERENCAIBINGCHONGFENFAHUITAMENDEZUOYONGZHEISIGEFANGMIAN,ZHEXUESHEHUIKEXUEYUZIRANKEXUE“TONGYANGZHONGYAO”[39]。2002NIAN4YUE,JIANGZEMINJINERTICHU “WUGEGAODUZHONGSHI”,JIGAODUZHONGSHI:“ZHEXUESHEHUIKEXUEZAIZHIDANGZHIGUOHEJIANSHEYOUZHONGGUOTESESHEHUIZHUYISHIYEZHONGDEJUDAZUOYONG”、“ZHEXUESHEHUIKEXUELINGYUGAODENGJIAOYUDEGAIGEHEFAZHAN”、“GAISHANZHEXUESHEHUIKEXUEYANJIUHERENCAIPEIYANGDETIAOJIAN”、“ZHEXUESHEHUIKEXUEYANJIULINGYUZHONGDAKETIDEGONGGUAN”、“WEIZHEXUESHEHUIKEXUEFAZHANZUOCHUJIECHUGONGXIANDEXUEZHEDECHENGJIUHEZUOYONG”[40]。7YUE,JIANGZEMINZAICIQIANGDIAO:“DANGJINSHIJIEDERENCAIJINGZHENGSHIQUANFANGWEIDE,BUJINBAOKUOLINGDAORENCAI、KEJIRENCAI,GUANLIRENCAIDEJINGZHENG,YEBAOKUOWENHUARENCAIDEJINGZHENG,DANGRANYEJIUBAOKUOZHEXUESHEHUIKEXUERENCAIDEJINGZHENG”[41]。TEBIESHI2004NIAN1YUE,ZHONGGONGZHONGYANGZHUANMENZUOCHU《GUANYUJINYIBUFANRONGFAZHANZHEXUESHEHUIKEXUEDEYIJIAN》,ZHEISHIZHONGGUOGONGCHANDANGLISHIYESHIXINZHONGGUOLISHISHANGDIYIGEQUANMIANSHENSHIZHEXUESHEHUIKEXUEDIWEI、GUIHUAZHEXUESHEHUIKEXUEFAZHANDEZHONGYANGWENJIAN,ZAIXINZHONGGUOZHEXUESHEHUIKEXUEFAZHANSHISHANGJUYOUZHONGYAODEBIAOZHIXINGYIYI。ZHEIJIDADIJIFALERENWENSHEKELINGYUZHISHIFENZICANYUSHEHUIHUODONGDEREQINGHEJIJIXING,TAMENYAOQIUBINGJIJICANYUTUIJINZHENGZHITIZHIGAIGE、KUODASHEHUIZHUYIMINZHU、JIANQUANSHEHUIZHUYIFAZHI、WANSHANMINZHUJIANDUZHIDU、CHENGZHIFUBAI,BINGZAIHONGYANGMINZUJINGSHEN、FAZHANXIANJINWENHUA,CANYUWENHUACHANYE,TISHENGWENHUACHANPINZHILIANGDENGFANGMIAN,NULICHENGDANQISHIDAIFUYUDESHIMING。

  DISAN,QUELIRENCAIQIANGGUOZHANLVE,JIANCHIDANGGUANRENCAIYUANZE,ZHIDINGBINGSHISHIGUOJIAZHONGZHANGQIRENCAIFAZHANGUIHUA。RENCAIQIANGGUOZHANLVE,SHIJINRUXINSHIJIXINJIEDUAN,YIHUJINTAOWEIZONGSHUJIDEDANGZHONGYANGZUOCHUDEZHONGDAZHANLVEJUECE。2003NIAN12YUE,ZHONGYANGZHAOKAILESHOUCIQUANGUORENCAIGONGZUOHUIYI,HUJINTAOSHENKECHANSHULEKEXUERENCAIGUANDENEIHAN,DUISHISHIRENCAIQIANGGUOZHANLVEZUOCHULEQUANMIANBUSHU。HUJINTAOZAIHUISHANGTICHUXUANCAIYONGCAIDE“SIXIANGBIAOZHUN”HE“SIBUYUANZE”:“YAOJIANCHIDECAIJIANBEIYUANZE,BAPINDE、ZHISHI、NENGLIHEYEJIZUOWEIHENGLIANGRENCAIDEZHUYAOBIAOZHUN,BUWEIXUELI、BUWEIZHICHENG、BUWEIZILI、BUWEISHENFEN,ZUODAOBUJUYIGEXUANRENCAI”。[42]HUIHOUYINFADE《ZHONGGONGZHONGYANG、GUOWUYUANGUANYUJINYIBUJIAQIANGRENCAIGONGZUODEJUEDING》,QIANGDIAO“SHISHIRENCAIQIANGGUOZHANLVESHIDANGHEGUOJIAYIXIANGZHONGDAERJINPODERENWU”,BINGTICHU“JIANCHIDANGGUANRENCAIYUANZE,JIANCHIYIRENWEIBEN,CHONGFENKAIFAGUONEIGUOJILIANGZHONGRENCAIZIYUAN,JINJINZHUAZHUPEIYANG、XIYIN、YONGHAORENCAISANGEHUANJIE,DALIJIAQIANGDANGZHENGRENCAI、QIYEJINGYINGGUANLIRENCAIHEZHUANYEJISHURENCAIWEIZHUTIDERENCAIDUIWUJIANSHE”[43],KAISHIGENGDUODICONGRENCAIZIYUANGUANLIHEKAIFADEJIAODU,CONGRENCAIQIANGGUODEJIAODULAIDUIDAIZHISHIFENZIWENTI,BINGGENGDUODITONGGUOSHICHANGJIZHI、RENCAIJINGZHENGJIZHIHEZHIDUCHUANGXINLAIJIFAZHISHIFENZIDEJIJIXINGHECHUANGZAOXING。ZHEIGEJUEDINGCHENGWEIXINSHIJIXINJIEDUANRENCAIGONGZUODEXINGDONGGANGLING。2004NIAN,RENCAIQIANGGUOZHANLVEZUOWEIZHUANZHANGLIERUGUOMINJINGJIHESHEHUIFAZHAN“SHIYIWU”GUIHUA。2007NIAN,DANGDESHIQIDABAOGAOHEXINDANGZHANG,SHOUCIXIEJINLERENCAIQIANGGUOZHANLVE,ZHEISHIDANGZHONGYANGZHANZAIQUANJUHEZHANLVEGAODU,WEIQUANMIANTUIJINXIAOKANGDAYE、KAICHUANGZHONGGUOTESESHEHUIZHUYISHIYEXINJUMIANERZUOCHUDELISHIXINGJUECE。XIANRAN,RENCAIQIANGGUOZHANLVEYIJINGBUSHIZHENDUIMOUYITEDINGQUNTIDEJUBUZHANSHU,ERSHIZHIXIANGFUGUOQIANGMINDEDAZHANLVE。2010NIAN5YUE,HUJINTAOZAIQUANGUORENCAIGONGZUOHUIYISHANGQIANGDIAO,DANGQIANHEJINHOUYIGESHIQI,“QUELIRENCAIYOUXIANFAZHANZHANLVEBUJU”,JIANCHI“FUWUFAZHAN、RENCAIYOUXIAN、YIYONGWEIBEN、CHUANGXINJIZHI、GAODUANYINLING、ZHENGTIKAIFA”[44]DE24ZIZHIDAOFANGZHEN,MINGQUELERENCAIFAZHANDEZHANLVEDINGWEI、ZHANLVEZHONGDIANHEZHUYAORENWU。WEILEGENGHAODISHISHIRENCAIQIANGGUOZHANLVE,ZI2008NIAN3YUEQI,ZHONGYANGRENCAIGONGZUOXIEDIAOXIAOZUQIDONGLERENCAIGUIHUAGANGYAODEBIANZHIGONGZUO。2010NIAN6YUE,DANGZHONGYANG、GUOWUYUANZHENGSHIBANBU《GUOJIAZHONGZHANGQIRENCAIFAZHANGUIHUAGANGYAO(2010——2020)》,ZHEIYIGUIHUAGANGYAOSHUYUGUOJIAFAZHANDEDINGCENGSHEJIHEXITONGGUIHUA,SHIWOMENDANGZAIJILIEDEGUOJIJINGZHENGZHONGYINGDEZHUDONGDEZHONGYAOZHANLVEXUANZE。

华夏棋牌  ZAIZHEIXIEZHENGCEZHIYINXIA,“SIGEYIPI”RENCAIPEIYANGGONGCHENG、“XINSHIJIBAIQIANWANRENCAIGONGCHENG”、“GAOCENGCICHUANGZAOXINGRENCAIJIHUA”、“SANNIANWUSHIWANXINJISHIPEIYANGJIHUA”、“BAIWANZHONGZHUANSHENGJIHUA”、YINJINHAIWAIGAOCENGCIRENCAI“QIANRENJIHUA”DENGYIXILIERENCAIPEIYANG、XIYIN、SHIYONGDEJIHUAHEXIANGMUZAIKAIZHAN。SUIZHEGUOJIAJIADADUIKEJISHIYEDETOURU,KEJISHIYEQUDELEYIXILIEFENGSHUOCHENGGUO,CONG“SHENZHOU”XILIEFEICHUANDAOTANYUEGONGCHENG,CONGZAJIAOSHUIDAO、GAOXINGNENGJISUANJIDENGLINGYUQUDEZHONGDACHENGGUODAOSANXIAGONGCHENG、NANSHUIBEIDIAO、XIDIANDONGSONG、XIQIDONGSHU、QINGZANGTIELUDENG,GAOJISHUCHANYEYICHENGWEIGUOMINJINGJIXINDEZENGZHANGDIAN,BEIJINGZHENGFUDIANZIDUIZHUANGJISHANGFAXIANXINLIZI、JINGQUECELIANGYINHEXIYINGXIANZUOXUANBEIJUTAIYANGXIJULI、WANCHENGSHUIDAODISIHAORANSETIQUANXULIECEXUGONGZUODENGYIXILIEJUYOUYUANCHUANGXINGYANJIUCHENGGUOCHANSHENGLEGUANGFANSHEHUIYINGXIANG。[45]GUOJIADALIZHICHIZHISHIFENZICHUANGXINCHUANGYE,CUJINKEJICHENGGUOXIANGXIANSHISHENGCHANLIZHUANHUA;BAOHUZHISHICHANQUAN;JINYIBUCUJINRENCAIHELILIUDONG、GONGPINGJINGZHENG;CHANGTONGTINGQUZHISHIFENZIYIJIANDEQUDAO,CUJINJUECEMINZHUHUA、KEXUEHUA;NULIZUOHAOGEXIANGFUWUBAOZHANGGONGZUO、JIAQIANGDANGWAIZHISHIFENZITONGZHANGONGZUODENG。RENWENSHEKEZHISHIFENZIYEHUODELEYUELAIYUEGUANGKUODEZIYOUCHICHENGDETIANDI,SHEHUIFAZHANDEMEIYICIZHUANZHE,DOUYOURENWENSHEKEZHISHIFENZIZAILILUNHEYULUNSHANGDEFENLIKAILU。RENJINQICAI、CAIJINQIYONGDELIANGHAOSHEHUIHUANJINGYEYOULIDIXIYINLEHAIWAIRENCAIGUIGUO,MEINIANGELEILIUXUEHUIGUORENYUANSHUBUDUANZENGZHANG,2001NIANWEI1.22WANREN,2010NIANDADAO13.5WANREN[46],ZENGZHANGLE10.1BEI。

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  SI、LISHIQISHI

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华夏棋牌  DIER,ZHENGQUERENSHIZHISHIFENZIGAINIANYUJIEJISHUXINGWENTIDEXINBIANHUASHIXINSHIJIYANJIUZHISHIFENZIWENTIDELILUNJIDIAN。CHUANTONGZHENGZHIXUEYIYISHANG,JIANGZHISHIFENZILIJIEWEIYONGYOUJIAOGAOXUELIDENAOLILAODONGZHE,SHIYIGEBUTONGYUGONGREN、NONGMINDESHEHUIJIECENG。ZHEIZHONGJIEDINGSHIYIZHONGWAIBUDEJIEDING,BINGMEIYOUCHUJIZHISHIFENZIDEBENZHITEZHENG。XINSHIJIYAOSHENHUADUIZHISHIFENZIWENTIDEYANJIU,XUYAOGUANZHUQIZUOWEISHEHUIXUE、WENHUAXUEYIYISHANGDEGONGNENGXINGGAINIAN,JIGUANZHUZHISHIFENZIZAIZHUANYEZHISHIZHIWAIDEJINGSHENQIZHI。BIRUWOGUOGUDAIZHISHIFENZI“DAZEJIANJITIANXIA,QIONGZEDUSHANQISHEN”、“XIANTIANXIAZHIYOUERYOU,HOUTIANXIAZHILEERLE”DERENGEZHUIQIU,HUOZHEXIFANGXUEZHEQIANGDIAODEZHISHIFENZIZUOWEI“SHEHUIDELIANGXIN”DEJIAOSEZUOYONGHEPIPANJINGSHEN。ZUOWEIDANGDEZHENGCEDUIXIANG,ZHISHIFENZIBEIRENCAISUOQUDAI,RENCAIDEJIBENTEZHENGSHICHUANGZAOXING,QIFENBUDELINGYUYEJUYOULEGUANGFANXING。ZHEIYANG,ZHISHIFENZIGAINIANDENEIHAN、WAIYANDOUFASHENGBIANHUA,JISHIRENSHIHESHENRUYANJIUZHEIZHONGXINBIANHUA,DUIYUWANSHANZHISHIFENZIZHENGCEHEGONGZUOLINIANSHIFENZHONGYAO。GUANYUJIEJISHUXINGWENTIYETONGYANGFASHENGXINBIANHUA。JIANGUOHOUXIANGDANGZHANGDESHIJIANLI,ZHISHIFENZIBEIRENWEIBUSHIYIGEDULIDEJIEJI,YINQIBUZHIJIECONGSHIWUZHISHENGCHAN,YEBUZHIJIECHUANGZAOCAIFU,CHUYU“PIZHIBUCUN,MAOJIANGYANFU”DEYIFUDIWEI。SUIZHESHEHUIDEFAZHAN,JINGJIZENGZHANGFANGSHIFASHENGZHONGDABIANGE,ZHISHICHENGWEISHENGCHANYAOSU,ZHISHIFENZIYUSHENGCHANLAOGUDIJIEHEQILAILE,CONGERCHEDIBAITUOLEYIFUDIWEI,BINGRIYICHENGWEISHEHUISHENGCHANDEZHULIJUN。TONGSHI,SHEHUIFENCENGYECHENGXIANFUZAHUAQUSHI,YIZHIYEWEIJICHUDEXINDESHEHUIJIECENGFENHUAJIZHIZHUJIANQUDAIGUOQUDEYIZHENGZHISHENFEN、HUKOUSHENFENHEXINGZHENGSHENFENWEIYIJUDEFENHUAJIZHI。YOUDEXUEZHEFANGQILE“SHENGCHANZILIAO”BIAOZHUN,CAIYONGZHIYEFENHUAHESANZHONGZIYUAN(ZUZHIZIYUAN、JINGJIZIYUANHEWENHUAZIYUAN)ZHANYOUZHUANGKUANGWEIHUAFENBIAOZHUN,BAMUQIANDEZHONGGUOSHEHUIHUAFENCHENGSHIDASHEHUIJIECENG,FENBIESHI:GUOJIAYUSHEHUIGUANLIZHEJIECENG、JINGLIRENYUANJIECENG、SIYINGQIYEZHUJIECENG、ZHUANYEJISHURENYUANJIECENG、BANSHIRENYUANJIECENG、GETIGONGSHANGHUJIECENG、SHANGYEFUWUYUANGONGJIECENG、CHANYEGONGRENJIECENG、NONGYELAODONGZHEJIECENGHECHENGXIANGWUYESHIYEBANSHIYEZHEJIECENG[48]。ZHISHIFENZIDUIWUXUNSUZHUANGDABINGFENHUADAOSHEHUIGEJIECENGZHONG。YINCI,XINSHIJIXINJIEDUANRUGUOZAIZHISHIFENZIWENTISHANGRENGGUSHOUYUANLAIDUIZHISHIFENZIDEJIEJIRENSHIMOSHILAIZHIDINGZHISHIFENZIZHENGCE,YIJINGWUFASHIYINGJINGJISHEHUIFAZHANDUIZHISHI、DUIRENCAIDEPOQIEYAOQIU。

  DISAN,LAOGUSHULI“RENCAISHIDIYIZIYUAN”DELINIAN,CONGZHIGUOANBANG、ZHIZHENGXINGGUODEGAODUZHONGSHIHEFAHUIZHISHIFENZIDEZUOYONGSHIXINSHIJIGENGHAOYINGDUIZHISHIJINGJIHEQUANQIUHUATIAOZHANDEGUANJIAN。ZAIGEMINGSHIQI,XIANJINZHISHIFENZIZUOWEIZUIXIANJUEWUDESHEHUIQUNTI,TAMENDAIBIAOZHEZHONGGUOGEMINGDEFAZHANFANGXIANG,TUIDONGZHEZHONGGUOGEMINGQIANJIN。MAOZEDONGZAIXINMINZHUZHUYIGEMINGSHIQISHUOGUO:“MEIYOUZHISHIFENZIDECANJIA,GEMINGDESHENGLISHIBUKENENGDE。”[49]ZAISHEHUIZHUYIJIANSHETEBIESHIGAIGEXINSHIQI,ZHISHIFENZIZHANGWOZUIQIANYANDEKEXUEWENHUAZHISHI,DAIBIAOZHEXIANJINSHENGCHANLIHEXIANJINWENHUAFAZHANDEFANGXIANG。RUJIANGZEMINSUOYAN:“JINTIAN,MEIYOUZHISHIFENZIDECANJIA,JIANSHEHEGAIGEDESHENGLIGENGSHIBUKENENGDE。”[50]SUIZHESHEHUIDESHENKEZHUANXING,ZHISHIFENZIDEZUOYONGGENGJIAWUKETIDAI,QIZHONGYAODESHEHUIGONGNENGZHUYAOBIAOXIAN:SHOUXIAN,ZHISHIFENZIZUOWEIXIANJINKEXUEJISHUDEZHONGYAOKAITUOZHE,YUDANGHERENMINYIDAO,DUIGAIGEKAIFANGHEJIANLISHEHUIZHUYISHICHANGJINGJITIZHIZHEIYIQIANWUGURENDESHIYE,JINXINGLEJIANKUDETANSUO;QICI,ZHISHIFENZIDUISHEHUIZHUYIMINZHUYUFAZHIJIANSHEJINXINGLILUNYANJIU,XUANCHUANPUJIMINZHUYUFAZHIZHISHI,JIJICANYUHETUIJINJUECEKEXUEHUA;ZAICI,ZHISHIFENZIDUIYUFAZHANHECHUANBOSHEHUIZHUYIXIANJINWENHUAFUYOUZHONGREN,WENHUASHIMINZUDELINGHUNHEXUEMAI,SHIWEIXIGUOJIATONGYIHEMINZUTUANJIEDEJINGSHENNIUDAI,YIGEGUOJIASHIFOUQIANGSHENG,BUJINJINSHIJINGJISHANGDEQIANGSHENG,HAIBIXUYOUWENHUARUANSHILIDEZHICHENG,DANGDESHIQIDATICHUDE“HONGYANGZHONGHUAWENHUA,JIANSHEZHONGHUAMINZUGONGYOUJINGSHENJIAYUAN”[51],JISHIDUIDANGJINZHISHIFENZIDEHAOZHAO,YESHIDUIWEILAIZHISHIFENZISHIMINGDEZHIYIN。WOGUOZUOWEIYIGEFAZHANZHONGGUOJIA,MIANDUIZHISHIJINGJIHEQUANQIUHUADACHAODETIAOZHANSHI,SHENGANZHISHIFENZI,TEBIESHIGAOSUZHI、CHUANGXINXINGRENCAIDEKUIFA,ZHEISHIWOMENBIYIWANGRENHEYIGESHIQIDOUGANDAOWENTIDEJINPOXING。2001NIANDANGZHONGYANGCHUANGZAOXINGDITICHULE“RENCAIZIYUANSHIDIYIZIYUAN”DEKEXUELUNDUAN,ZHEISHIDANGZAIZHISHIFENZIGONGZUOGUANNIANHERENCAIGUANNIANFANGMIANDEZHONGDACHUANGXINHEYUSHIJUJIN。21SHIJIWOMENBIXULAOGUSHULI“RENCAISHIDIYIZIYUAN”DELINIAN,CONGZHIGUOANBANG、ZHIZHENGXINGGUODEGAODUZHONGSHIZHISHIFENZIDEDIWEIHEZUOYONG,JIANDINGBUYIDIZOURENCAIQIANGGUOZHILU,ZHUBUSHIXIANYOURENLIZIYUANDAGUOXIANGRENCAIQIANGGUOZHUANBIAN。

华夏棋牌  ZONGZHI,DANGDEZHISHIFENZIZHENGCEZHIJIEGUANXIDAOSHEHUIZHUYISHIYEDEXINGSHUAICHENGBAI。WOMENBIXUCHONGFENFAHUIRENLIZIYUANYOUSHI,“YONGSHIYEZAOJIURENCAI、YONGHUANJINGNINGJURENCAI、YONGJIZHIJILIRENCAI、YONGFAZHIBAOZHANGRENCAI,BAQUANSHEHUIRENCAIDEJIJIXINGHECHUANGZAOXINGYINDAOHAO、BAOHUHAO、FAHUIHAO。”[52]ZAIRIQUJILIEDERENCAIJINGZHENGZHONGYOUSUOZUOWEI,TUIDONGZHONGHUAMINZUDETENGFEI。

  [1] 《ZHOUENLAIXUANJI》(XIA),RENMINCHUBANSHE,1984NIAN,DI162YE。

  [2] “LIANGGEGUJI”ZHIDESHI1971NIANDE《QUANGUOJIAOYUGONGZUOHUIYIJIYAO》ZHONGDELIANGGEZHENGZHIJIELUN,JI“WENHUADAGEMING”QIANSHIQINIANJIAOYUZHANXIANSHIZICHANJIEJIZHUANLEWUCHANJIEJIDEZHENG,SHI“HEIXIANZHUANZHENG”;ZHISHIFENZIDEDADUOSHUSHIJIEGUANJIBENSHANGSHIZICHANJIEJIDE,SHIZICHANJIEJIDEZHISHIFENZI。

华夏棋牌  [3] BOYIBO:《RUOGANZHONGDAJUECEYUSHIJIANDEHUIGU》(XIA),ZHONGGONGZHONGYANGDANGXIAOCHUBANSHE1991NIAN,DI1010YE。

华夏棋牌  [4] 《DENGXIAOPINGWENXUAN》DIERJUAN,RENMINCHUBANSHE,1994NIAN,DI48YE。

  [5] 《DENGXIAOPINGWENXUAN》DIERJUAN,RENMINCHUBANSHE,1994NIAN,DI68YE。

华夏棋牌  [6] 《DENGXIAOPINGWENXUAN》DIERJUAN,RENMINCHUBANSHE,1994NIAN,DI41YE。

  [7] 《DENGXIAOPINGWENXUAN》DIERJUAN,RENMINCHUBANSHE,1994NIAN,DI67、68YE。

华夏棋牌  [8] 《DENGXIAOPINGWENXUAN》DIERJUAN,RENMINCHUBANSHE,1994NIAN,DI66YE。

  [9] GONGYUZHIZHU:《GONGYUZHIDANGSHILUNJI》(XIAJUAN),HUNANRENMINCHUBANSHE,2009NIAN,DI320YE。

华夏棋牌  [10] 《DENGXIAOPINGWENXUAN》DIERJUAN,RENMINCHUBANSHE,1994NIAN,DI86YE。

  [11] 《DENGXIAOPINGWENXUAN》DIERJUAN,RENMINCHUBANSHE,1994NIAN,DI89YE。

华夏棋牌  [12] 《SANZHONGQUANHUIYILAIZHONGYAOWENXIANXUANBIAN》(XIA),RENMINCHUBANSHE,1982NIAN,DI842YE。

  [13] 《DENGXIAOPINGWENXUAN》DISANJUAN,RENMINCHUBANSHE,1993NIAN,DI91—92YE。

华夏棋牌  [14] 《DENGXIAOPINGWENXUAN》DISANJUAN,RENMINCHUBANSHE,1993NIAN,DI120 YE。

  [15] ZHONGGONGZHONGYANGZUZHIBU、ZHONGGONGZHONGYANGWENXIANYANJIUSHIBIAN:《ZHISHIFENZIWENTIWENXIANXUANBIAN》,RENMINCHUBANSHE,1983NIAN,DI48—49YE。

  [16] ZHONGGONGZHONGYANGZUZHIBU、ZHONGGONGZHONGYANGWENXIANYANJIUSHIBIAN:《ZHISHIFENZIWENTIWENXIANXUANBIAN》,RENMINCHUBANSHE,1983NIAN,DI51—62YE。

华夏棋牌  [17] 《SANZHONGQUANHUIYILAIZHONGYAOWENXIANXUANBIAN》(XIA),RENMINCHUBANSHE,1982NIAN,DI1136YE。

  [18] ZHENGWEN:《WOGUOZHISHIFENZIDIWEIRIGAO》,《RENMINRIBAO》1991NIAN6YUE30RI。

  [19] YINPINDUAN:《JINYIBUZUOHAOZHISHIFENZIGONGZUO》,《RENMINRIBAO》1990NIAN5YUE14RI。

华夏棋牌  [20] ZHENGWEN:《WOGUOZHISHIFENZIDIWEIRIGAO》,《RENMINRIBAO》1991NIAN6YUE30RI。

  [21] ZHONGGONGZHONGYANGWENXIANYANJIUSHIBIAN:《DENGXIAOPINGNIANPU (YIJIUQIWU——JIUJIUQI) 》(XIA),ZHONGYANGWENXIANCHUBANSHE,2004NIAN,DI997YE。

  [22] 《JIANGZEMINWENXUAN》DIYIJUAN,RENMINCHUBANSHE,2006NIAN,DI126YE。

  [23] ZHONGGONGZHONGYANGWENXIANYANJIUSHIBIAN:《DENGXIAOPINGNIANPU (YIJIUQIWU——JIUJIUQI) 》(XIA),ZHONGYANGWENXIANCHUBANSHE,2004NIAN,DI1245YE。

  [24] 《DENGXIAOPINGWENXUAN》DISANJUAN,RENMINCHUBANSHE,1993NIAN,DI275YE。

华夏棋牌  [25] 《SHISIDAYILAIZHONGYAOWENXIANXUANBIAN》(SHANG),RENMINCHUBANSHE,1996NIAN,DI26YE。

  [26] 《SHIWUDAYILAIZHONGYAOWENXIANXUANBIAN》(SHANG),RENMINCHUBANSHE,2000NIAN,DI38YE。

  [27] 《SHISIDAYILAIZHONGYAOWENXIANXUANBIAN》(SHANG),RENMINCHUBANSHE,1996NIAN,DI26YE。

  [28] 《ZHONGHUARENMINGONGHEGUOJIAOSHIFA》,《RENMINRIBAO》1993NIAN11YUE3RI。

华夏棋牌  [29] 《SHISANJIESIZHONGQUANHUIYILAIWOGUOJIAOYUGAIGEYUFAZHANDELISHIXINGCHENGJIU》,《RENMINRIBAO》2002NIAN9YUE26RI。

  [30] GUOWUYUANXINWENBANGONGSHI:《2000NIANZHONGGUORENQUANSHIYEDEJINZHAN》,《RENMINRIBAO》2001NIAN4YUE10RI。

华夏棋牌  [31] 《JIANGZEMINWENXUAN》DIYIJUAN,RENMINCHUBANSHE,2006NIAN,DI425—426YE。

  [32] JIMIANXIANG21SHIJI,ZHONGDIANJIANSHE100SUOZUOYOUDEGAODENGXUEXIAOHEYIPIZHONGDIANXUEKEDEJIANSHEGONGCHENG。

  [33] 《WOGUOKEJIGAIGEYUFAZHANDELISHIXINGCHENGJIU》,《RENMINRIBAO》2002NIAN10YUE11RI。

  [34] ZHONGYANGRENCAIGONGZUOXIEDIAOXIAOZUBANGONGSHIBIAN:《RENCAIGONGZUOLILUNYANJIUBAOGAO》,DANGJIANDUWUCHUBANSHE,2003NIANBAN,DI5YE。

  [35] 《SHILIUDAYILAIZHONGYAOWENXIANXUANBIAN》(SHANG),ZHONGYANGWENXIANCHUBANSHE,2005NIAN,DI11YE。

  [36] 《JIANGZEMINWENXUAN》DISANJUAN,RENMINCHUBANSHE ,2006,DI148YE。

华夏棋牌  [37] 《JIANGZEMINWENXUAN》DISANJUAN,RENMINCHUBANSHE, 2006,DI319—321YE。

  [38] 《SHILIUDAYILAIZHONGYAOWENXIANXUANBIAN》(SHANG),ZHONGYANGWENXIANCHUBANSHE,2005NIAN,DI12YE。

华夏棋牌  [39] 《JIANGZEMINWENXUAN》DISANJUAN,RENMINCHUBANSHE, 2006,DI495YEZHUSHI。

  [40] 《JIANGZEMINWENXUAN》DISANJUAN,RENMINCHUBANSHE,2006,DI495—496YEZHUSHI。

  [41] 《JIANGZEMINWENXUAN》DISANJUAN,RENMINCHUBANSHE,2006,DI494YE。

华夏棋牌  [42] ZHONGGONGZHONGYANGWENXIANYANJIUSHIBIAN:《SHILIUDAYILAIZHONGYAOWENXIANXUANBIAN》(SHANG),ZHONGYANGWENXIANCHUBANSHE,2005NIAN,DI575YE。

  [43] 《SHILIUDAYILAIZHONGYAOWENXIANXUANBIAN》(SHANG),ZHONGYANGWENXIANCHUBANSHE,2005NIAN,DI621—623YE。

  [44] 《RENMINRIBAO》2010NIAN5YUE27RI。

  [45]《KEXUEJISHUSHIYEMAICHUXINBUFA(CHUANGZAOXINCHENGJI YINGJIESHIQIDA)》,《RENMINRIBAO》2007NIAN10YUE10RI。

  [46] 《ZHONGGUOJIAOYUBAO》2009NIAN3YUE18RI,2011NIAN3YUE12RI。

  [47] LIYUYANG:《NASHENMEXIYIN30WANLIUXUESHENGHUIGUO》,《JINGJIRIBAO》2000NIAN7YUE25RI。

  [48] LUXUEYIZHUBIAN:《DANGDAIZHONGGUOSHEHUIJIECENGYANJIUBAOGAO》,SHEHUIKEXUEWENXIANCHUBANSHE,2002NIAN,DI8YE。

华夏棋牌  [49] 《MAOZEDONGXUANJI》DIERJUAN,RENMINCHUBANSHE,1991NIAN,DI618YE。

  [50] 《JIANGZEMINWENXUAN》DIYIJUAN,RENMINCHUBANSHE,2006NIAN,DI125YE。

  [51] 《SHIQIDAYILAIZHONGYAOWENXIANXUANBIAN》(SHANG),ZHONGYANGWENXIANCHUBANSHE,2009NIAN,DI27YE。

  [52] 《SHILIUDAYILAIZHONGYAOWENXIANXUANBIAN》(SHANG),ZHONGYANGWENXIANCHUBANSHE,2005NIAN,DI637—638YE。

华夏棋牌  (BENWENZUOZHE FANRUI ZHONGYANGDANGSHIYANJIUSHIDISANYANJIUBU FUYANJIUYUAN)

      LAIYUAN:ZHONGGUOGONGCHANDANGLISHIWANG