华夏棋牌

欢迎访问运城党史网!

党史论文

当前位置:华夏棋牌 >> 党史论文

邓小平与中国特色社会主义制度的创建和发展

发布时间:2017/4/6 8:40:00     浏览次数:2731次

  ZHONGGUOTESESHEHUIZHUYIZHIDUSHIZAITANSUOHEFAZHANZHONGGUOTESESHEHUIZHUYIDAOLUZHONGZHUBUXINGCHENGDEZHENGZHI、JINGJI、WENHUADENGGUIFANTIXI,SHIKEXUESHEHUIZHUYIJIBENYUANLIYUWOGUOSHIJIAN、SHIDAITEZHENGHERENMINYUANWANGXIANGJIEHEDECHANWU,SHIZHONGGUOGONGCHANDANGRENDAILINGRENMINJIEXUFENDOU、JIANXINTANSUODECHENGGUO。ZUOWEIDANGDEDIYIDAIZHONGYANGLINGDAOJITIDEZHONGYAOCHENGYUANHEDIERDAIZHONGYANGLINGDAOJITIDEHEXIN,DENGXIAOPINGWEIZHONGGUOTESESHEHUIZHUYIZHIDUDECHUANGJIANHEFAZHANZUOCHULEJIECHUGONGXIAN。TAZUIZAOTICHULE“ZHONGGUOTESEDESHEHUIZHUYIZHIDU”(1987NIAN4YUE17RI,DENGXIAOPINGZAIHUIJIANXIANGGANGTEBIEXINGZHENGQUJIBENFAQICAOWEIYUANHUIWEIYUANSHITICHU:“WOMENDESHEHUIZHUYIZHIDUSHIYOUZHONGGUOTESEDESHEHUIZHUYIZHIDU”。《DENGXIAOPINGWENXUAN》DI3JUAN,RENMINCHUBANSHE,1993NIAN,DI218YE。)GAINIAN,BINGZAILINGDAOGAIGEKAIFANGZHONGKAITUOLEZHONGGUOTESESHEHUIZHUYIZHIDUJIANSHEDESHIJIAN。TAZAIWANNIANDENANFANGTANHUAZHONG,CONGCUJINXINGCHENGZHIDUTIXIJIAODUTICHU:“KONGPAZAIYOUSANSHINIANDESHIJIAN,WOMENCAIHUIZAIGEFANGMIANXINGCHENGYIZHENGTAOGENGJIACHENGSHU、GENGJIADINGXINGDEZHIDU。ZAIZHEIGEZHIDUXIADEFANGZHEN、ZHENGCE,YEJIANGGENGJIADINGXINGHUA。”(《DENGXIAOPINGWENXUAN》DI3JUAN,DI372YE。)CONGERWEIJINYIBUWANSHANZHONGGUOTESESHEHUIZHUYIZHIDUQUELILEMUBIAO。SHIJIANBIAOMING,DENGXIAOPINGZHIDUJIANSHEDESIXIANGHESHIJIANBUJINYAOJIEJUEZHIYUEDANGHEGUOJIASHIYEFAZHANDETIZHIJIZHIBIDUANWENTI,ERQIEYEYAOJIEJUESHIGUANDANGHEGUOJIAZHANGZHIJIUANDEZHIDUXIANDAIHUAWENTI,JUYOUZHENGTIXING、QUANJUXINGHEZHANLVEXINGDEXIANZHUTEDIAN,SHIZHONGGUOTESESHEHUIZHUYIZHIDUJIANSHEDEZHONGYAOZUCHENGBUFEN,SHIJIANGOUXITONGWANBEI、KEXUEGUIFAN、YUNXINGYOUXIAODEZHONGGUOTESESHEHUIZHUYIZHIDUTIXIDEDIANJIZHIZUO。

华夏棋牌  DENGXIAOPINGZHONGGUOTESESHEHUIZHUYIZHIDUJIANSHESHIJIANDEQIANTIHEJICHU

  SHEHUIZHUYIZUOWEIYIZHONGXINXINGDESHEHUIZHIDU,ZAIGENBENZHIDUQUELIZHIHOU,ZHUBUXINGCHENGJUTIYOUXIAODETIZHIJIZHI,XINGCHENGZHIDUTIXI,SHISHEHUIZHUYIJIANSHESHUNLIZHANKAIDEGENBENYAOQIUHEZHONGYAOBAOZHENG。1949NIAN9YUE,《GONGTONGGANGLING》BADANGDUIXINZHONGGUODEGOUXIANGQUEDINGXIALAI。1954NIAN9YUE,DIYIJIEQUANGUORENMINDAIBIAODAHUIDIYICIHUIYITONGGUODE《XIANFA》,GUIDINGLEWOGUOSHEHUIZHUYIZHENGZHIZHIDUYUANZE。1956NIANSHEHUIZHUYIGAIZAOWANCHENG,GOUJIANLEWOGUOSHEHUIZHUYIJINGJIZHIDUDEJICHU,BIAOZHIZHESHEHUIZHUYIJIBENZHIDUZAIZHONGGUODEQUELI。

华夏棋牌  DANSHIZHIDUJIANSHECONGLAIJIUSHIJIQIFUZADEXITONGGONGCHENG,GENGHEKUANGSHIZAIWOGUOZHEIYANGJUYOUTESHULISHITIAOJIANHEGUOQINGXIA。JINDAIYILAI,WOGUOSHEHUINEIYOUWAIHUAN,MINZUWEIJISHENZHONG,ZHENGGEGUOJIAZAIYIBAIDUONIANDESHIJIANLI,WAIDIRUQIN,NEILUANPINRENG。LIANNIANZHANZHENGHEDONGLUAN,ZAICUIHUICHUANTONGSHEHUIZHIDUHEZHIXUDETONGSHI,JIANLIQILEYIGEBANZHIMINDIBANFENGJIANDEJIXINGSHEHUI,ZHEIJIUSHIXINZHONGGUOCHENGLIHOUDEZHIDUJIANSHEMIANLINZHEJIDUANFANFUDEXINGSHIHERENWU。YIFANGMIANXINZHONGGUOSUOYAOJIANLIDESHEHUIZHIDUBUSHICHUANTONGZHIDUDEHUIFUHUOHUIGUI,ERSHIYAOJIANLIYIGEZHANXINDESHEHUIZHUYIXINZHIDU,YINCI,CHUANTONGSHEHUIZHIDUJIANSHEDEYUANLI、JINGYANHESHOUDUANSHIQULEYIYI;LINGYIFANGMIANDUIYUJIJIANGJIANLIHEJIANSHEDEXINZHIDU,ZHIZHISHENSHAO,QUEFAJINGYAN。ZHENGYINWEIRUCI,ZAIZHIZHENGYIHOU,DANGLINGDAORENMINJINXINGLEJIANXINDETANSUO,CONGCANKAOSULIANMOSHIDAOJIEHEWOGUOGUOQINGDETANSUO,QUDELEYIXILIEZHONGYAOCHENGGUO。

  QUANMIANCHUBUDEZHIDUJIANSHEDIANDINGLEWOGUOZHIDUJIANSHEDEJIBENGEJU,ZHANXIANLEWOGUOZHIDUJIANSHEDEHEXINJIAZHIDAOXIANG。DENGXIAOPINGCANYULESHEHUIZHUYIZHIDUCHUJIANDEQUANBUGUOCHENG,BINGCONGYIKAISHIJIUDUIZHIDUJIANSHEZHONGYAOXINGHEBIYAOXINGYOUZHESHENKEDERENSHI。

  1950NIAN5YUE,DENGXIAOPINGJIUZHICHU:YAOZUZHIHEJIANQUANNONGMINXIEHUI,JIANLIHUOJIANQUANNONGMINDAIBIAOHUIJIRENMINDAIBIAOHUIYIZHIDU,SHINONGMINDAIBIAOHUIYISHIJISHANGQIZHENGQUANDEZUOYONG;XIANGEJIERENMINDAIBIAOHUIYI,YAOZHUJIANQIRENMINDAIBIAODAHUIDEZUOYONG。ZAIXINANDANGZHENGJUNJIGUANDANGYUANGANBUDAHUISHANG,TAQIANGDIAO,YAOZAI“SANFAN”SHENGLIDEJICHUSHANGJINXINGYIXILIEDEJIANSHEGONGZUO,JISIXIANGJIANSHE、ZUZHIJIANSHEHEZHIDUJIANSHE。 1952NIAN8YUE,DENGXIAOPINGDIAOZHONGYANGGONGZUO,ZHIJIECANYULINGDAOLEXINZHONGGUODIYIBUXUANJUFAHEDIYICIQUANGUOJICENGMINZHUXUANJUGONGZUO。SHIJIANZHONG,TASHENKEZHICHU,XUANJUZHIDUDEJIANLIJUYOUSHIFENZHONGDADEYIYI,YINWEIZHEISHIGUOJIAZHENGZHIZHIDUJIANSHEJINRUXINDEFAZHANJIEDUANDEBIAOZHI。XUANJUFAZONGDEJINGSHEN,JIUSHIRUHEGENJUGUOJIADEQINGKUANG,GUIDINGYIGEHEHUDANGQIANSHIJIDEZUIMINZHUDEXUANJUZHIDU。TASHUO:RUGUOSHUOWOMENGUOJIAZHENGKAISHIDEDIYIGEWUNIANJIANSHEJIHUABIAOZHIZHEWOGUOJINGJI、WENHUAFAZHANDEXINJIEDUAN,NEIME,XUANJUFADEBANBUBIAOZHIZHEWOGUORENMINMINZHUZHENGZHIFAZHANDEXINJIEDUAN。(《DENGXIAOPINGNIANPU(1904—1974)》(ZHONG),ZHONGYANGWENXIANCHUBANSHE,2009NIAN,DI1096YE。)ZHEIGESHIQI,ZAIZHIDUJIANSHEDESHIJIANZHONGDENGXIAOPINGHAIZHUYIFAHUIDANGWAIRENSHIZUOYONG,ZUNZHONGDANGWAIRENSHIZHENGZHIDIWEI,DALITUIDONGDANGLINGDAODEDUODANGHEZUOHEZHENGZHIXIESHANGZHIDUJIANKANGYOUXUDIYUNXINGHEFAZHAN;TALINGDAOSHIXIANLEMINZUQUYUZIZHIZHIDUJIANSHEDEXINTUPO,JIANLILEXINZHONGGUODIYIGEXIANGDANGYUSHENGXIASHIYIJIDEMINZUZIZHIDIFANG;TAJIJITUIXINGYIZHIGONGDAIBIAODAHUIWEIHEXINDEJICENGMINZHU,KAITUOLEJICENGMINZHUZHIDUJIANSHEDEXINGSHIHEFANGFA。CIWAI,TAHAITANSUOCAIQULEYIXILIECUJINJINGJIFAZHANDEXINCUOSHI、XINBANFA,YIZENGQIANGJINGJIZHIDUDEHUOLI。ZHEIYIQIEZHIDUJIANSHESHIJIANWEIGAIGEKAIFANGHOUDENGXIAOPINGKAICHUANGZHONGGUOTESESHEHUIZHUYIZHIDUJIANSHEJILEILEFENGFUJINGYAN,DAXIALEJIANSHIJICHU。

  RANER,CONG20SHIJI50NIANDAIZHONGHOUQIKAISHI,YOUYUDUISHEHUIZHUYIJIANSHEGUILVQUEFAZHENGQUERENSHI,YOUYUDUIGUONEIWAIXINGSHIQUEFAZHUNQUEPANDUAN,ZHISHISHEHUIZHUYIJIANSHEZONGDEZHIDAOSIXIANGZHUBUFASHENGLE“ZUO”DEPIANCHA。ZAIZHEIZHONGQINGKUANGXIA,ZHIDUJIANSHESUIZHIYEJINGLILEYIDUANQUZHEHESHIWU,XINZHONGGUOCHENGLIYIHOUTANSUOXINGCHENGDEYIXIEXINGZHIYOUXIAODEHAOZHIDU、HAOBANFAMEIYOUDEDAOHENHAODEGUANCHEZHIXING,SHENZHIBEIFEIZHIHEPAOQI。DUIYIXIEBUHELIZHIDUDEGAIGE、JIDAIXINGCHENGDEXIANGHUPEITAODETIZHIJIZHIJIANSHEYEMEIYOURUQIZHANKAI。SHEHUIZHUYIZHIDUBUJIANQUAN、BUWANSHANDEZHUANGKUANGRIYITUCHU,JIDAFANGAILESHEHUIZHUYIZHIDUYOUYUEXINGDEFAHUI,YEWEI“WENHUADAGEMING”ZHEIYANGQUANJUXINGZHANGQIXINGCUOWUDEFASHENGCHUANGZAOLETIAOJIAN。“WENHUADAGEMING”ZHONG,ZHIDUJIANSHEZAODAOYANZHONGPOHUAI。

华夏棋牌  ZHENGSHIZAIQUANMIANZONGJIELISHIJINGYANJIAOXUNDEJICHUSHANG,DENGXIAOPINGZHICHU:“ZHIDUSHIJUEDINGYINSU”(《DENGXIAOPINGWENXUAN》DI2JUAN,RENMINCHUBANSHE,1994NIAN,DI308YE。)。“WOMENGUOQUFASHENGDEGEZHONGCUOWU,GURANYUMOUXIELINGDAORENDESIXIANG、ZUOFENGYOUGUAN,DANSHIZUZHIZHIDU、GONGZUOZHIDUFANGMIANDEWENTIGENGZHONGYAO。ZHEIXIEFANGMIANDEZHIDUHAOKEYISHIHUAIRENWUFARENYIHENGXING,ZHIDUBUHAOKEYISHIHAORENWUFACHONGFENZUOHAOSHI,SHENZHIHUIZOUXIANGFANMIAN。”FASHENG“WENHUADAGEMING”ZHEIYANGDESHIQING,“BUSHISHUOGERENMEIYOUZEREN,ERSHISHUOLINGDAOZHIDU、ZUZHIZHIDUWENTIGENGDAIYOUGENBENXING、QUANJUXING、WENDINGXINGHEZHANGQIXING。ZHEIZHONGZHIDUWENTI,GUANXIDAODANGHEGUOJIASHIFOUGAIBIANYANSE,BIXUYINQIQUANDANGDEGAODUZHONGSHI”。(《DENGXIAOPINGWENXUAN》DI2JUAN,DI333YE。)WEILEBIMIANZHONGFANLISHIDECUOWU,DENGXIAOPINGQIANGDIAO:“WOMENDEHENDUOZHIDUDOUYAOHUIFUQILAI”,(《DENGXIAOPINGNIANPU(1975—1997)》(SHANG),ZHONGYANGWENXIANCHUBANSHE,2004NIAN,DI222YE。)“GUOQUXINGZHIYOUXIAODEDONGXI,WOMENBIXUJIANCHI,TEBIESHIGENBENZHIDU,SHEHUIZHUYIZHIDU,SHEHUIZHUYIGONGYOUZHI,NEISHIBUNENGDONGYAODE”(《DENGXIAOPINGWENXUAN》DI2JUAN,DI133YE。)。TONGSHI,TAYEZHICHU:“WOMENXIANZAIZHENGZAIYANJIUBIMIANZHONGFUZHEIZHONGXIANXIANG,ZHUNBEICONGGAIGEZHIDUZHESHOU。”(《DENGXIAOPINGWENXUAN》DI2JUAN,DI348YE。)TARENWEI,SHEHUIZHUYIZHIDUHAICHUZAIYOUNIANSHIQI,HAIBUCHENGSHU、BUWANSHAN。YAOCONGZHONGGUODESHIJICHUFA,NULIZOUCHUYITIAOSHIHEWOGUOQINGKUANGHETEDIANDESHIXIANXIANDAIHUADEDAOLU,GAIGEHEWANSHANSHEHUIZHUYIJINGJIZHIDUHEZHENGZHIZHIDU,FAZHANGAODUDESHEHUIZHUYIMINZHUHEWANBEIDESHEHUIZHUYIFAZHI,ZHEIXIEDOUSHIWOMENSHEHUIZHUYIXIANDAIHUADEZHONGYAOMUBIAO。

华夏棋牌  WULUNSHIJIANCHIHEGONGGUBEISHIJIANZHENGMINGLEDEFUHEZHONGGUOGUOQINGDESHEHUIZHUYIGENBENZHIDU,HAISHITONGGUOGAIGEKAIFANGTUIJINZHIDUGAIGEHEZHIDUCHUANGXIN,DENGXIAOPINGZHIDUJIANSHESIXIANGHESHIJIANDEYIGEHEXINNEIRONGJIUSHI:WOMENYAOJIANSHEDEZHIDUSHILIZUYUWOGUOSHEHUIZHUYIGENBENZHIDU,TONGSHI“WOMENDESHEHUIZHUYIZHIDUSHIYOUZHONGGUOTESEDESHEHUIZHUYIZHIDU”。

华夏棋牌  KAICHUANGZHONGGUOTESESHEHUIZHUYIZHIDUJIANSHEDEXINSHIJIAN

华夏棋牌  GAIGEKAIFANGXINSHIQI,DENGXIAOPINGZHONGGUOTESESHEHUIZHUYIZHIDUJIANSHEDEJIBENSILUHEJINGYAN,JIUSHIBAKEXUESHEHUIZHUYIJIBENYUANLIHEWOGUOZHIDUJIANSHEDEJUTISHIJIXIANGJIEHE,CONGCHUJIJIEDUANDEJIBENGUOQINGCHUFA,YIJIEFANGHEFAZHANSHENGCHANLIZUOWEIZHIDUJIANSHEDEGENBENDIANHECHUFADIAN,JIANCHIDANGDELINGDAO,ZUNZHONGRENMINQUNZHONGDESHOUCHUANGJINGSHEN,ZHONGSHITIZHIJIZHIDEGAIGE、FAZHANHEWANSHAN,DALICUJINZHIDUJIANSHEDETIXIHUAJINCHENG,ZAIZONGJIEJINGYANHEXISHOUJIEJIANDEJICHUSHANG,KAICHUANGZHONGGUOTESESHEHUIZHUYIZHIDUJIANSHEDEZHANXINSHIJIAN。

华夏棋牌  DIYI,JIANCHIHEGAISHANRENMINDAIBIAODAHUIZHIDU,YI《XIANFA》DEZHIDINGHEXIUGAIWEIZHUXIAN,KAIQILEGENBENZHENGZHIZHIDUJIANSHEDEXINJIEDUAN。“WENHUADAGEMING”DEFASHENG,YIFANGMIANSHIRENMINDAIBIAODAHUIZHIDUZAODAOLEYANZHONGPOHUAI,LINGYIFANGMIANYEBAOLULERENMINDAIBIAODAHUIZHIDUBENSHENCUNZAIBUWANSHAN、BUJIANQUANDEWENTI。YINCI,“WENHUADAGEMING”JIESHUHOU,DUIRENMINDAIBIAODAHUIZHIDUNENGFOUBAOZHANGGUOJIADEZHANGZHIJIUAN,RENMENXINCUNYILV,RENMINDAIBIAODAHUIZHIDUYINGGAIZENYANGJIANCHIHEFAZHANDEWENTIYANZHONGDIBAIZAILEQUANDANGHEQUANGUORENMINMIANQIAN。ZAISHENKESIKAODEJICHUSHANG,DENGXIAOPINGTICHU: WOMENDEZHIDUSHIRENMINDAIBIAODAHUIZHIDU,ZHEIGEZHIDUBUHUIGAIBIAN。“BUGAODUODANGJINGXUAN,BUGAOSANQUANFENLI、LIANGYUANZHI。WOMENSHIXINGDEJIUSHIQUANGUORENMINDAIBIAODAHUIYIYUANZHI,ZHEIZUIFUHEZHONGGUOSHIJI。”(《DENGXIAOPINGWENXUAN》DI3JUAN,DI220YE。)TONGSHI,DENGXIAOPINGYEZAIZONGJIELISHIJIAOXUNDEJICHUSHANG,TICHULEGAISHANRENMINDAIBIAODAHUIZHIDUDEYAOQIU。SHIJIANBIAOMING,JIANCHIRENMINDAIBIAODAHUIZHIDUYUGAISHANRENMINDAIBIAODAHUIZHIDUSHIYIGEWENTIDELIANGGEFANGMIAN。JIANCHISHIGAISHANDEQIANTI,GAISHANSHIJIANCHIDEBAOZHENG。CONGDANGSHIDEQINGKUANGKAN,JIANCHIHEGAISHANRENMINDAIBIAODAHUIZHIDUZUIZHUYAODESHIXIANXINGSHIJIUSHIDUI《XIANFA》DEHUIFU、XIUDINGHEWANSHAN。ZAIDENGXIAOPINGDEJIJITUIDONGHEZHIDAOXIA,CONG1978NIANXIUDING《XIANFA》KAISHI,RENMINDAIBIAODAHUIZHIDUJIANSHELIDUMINGXIANZENGQIANG。XIUDINGHOUDE1978NIAN《XIANFA》MINGQUEGUIDINGXIANHEXIANYISHANGDEDIFANGGEJIRENDASHECHANGWUWEIYUANHUI;JIANGDIFANGGEJIGEMINGWEIYUANHUIGAIWEIDIFANGGEJIRENMINZHENGFU;XIANRENMINDAIBIAODAHUIDAIBIAOYOUJIANJIEXUANJUGAIWEIZHIJIEXUANJU;JIANGSHANGJIRENMINJIANCHAYUANDUIXIAJIRENMINJIANCHAYUANYOUJIANDUGUANXIGAIWEILINGDAOGUANXI;QUXIAOSUOWEI“DAMING、DAFANG、DABIANLUN、DAZIBAO”。ZHEIXIENEIRONG,CONG《XIANFA》SHANGDADAJIAQIANGHEWANSHANLERENMINDAIBIAODAHUIZHIDU,YEJINYIBUJIAQIANGLEGUOJIAQUANLIJIGUAN、XINGZHENGJIGUANHESIFAJIGUANDEZHINENG。CIHOU,DENGXIAOPINGZAILINGDAOZHIDING1982NIAN《XIANFA》SHI,JINYIBUZHICHU,YAOZENGQIANGQUANGUORENDAHEDIFANGGEJIRENDAXINGSHIGUOJIAQUANLIDENENGLI。WEICI,QUANGUORENDAZENGSHELEZHUANMENWEIYUANHUI,BINGZAI《XIANFA》ZHONGZUOLEGUIDING。TONGSHIHAIYAOQIUGEJIRENDACHANGWEIHUIZUCHENGRENYUANBUZAIZAIGEJI“YIFULIANGYUAN”RENZHI,JINYIBUJIAQIANGRENDAJIQICHANGWEIHUIZAILIFAHEDUI“YIFULIANGYUAN”JIANDUFANGMIANDEZHIDUJIANSHE。YOUCI,RENMINDAIBIAODAHUIJIQICHANGWEIHUIZAIXINGSHILIFA、JIANDU、RENSHIRENMIAN、ZHONGDASHIXIANGJUEDINGFANGMIANDEZUOYONGDEDAOLEDADAZENGQIANG。ZHEIGESHIQI,GENJUDENGXIAOPINGDEJIANYI,HUIFULEGUOJIAZHUXIZHI,SHELILEZHONGYANGJUNSHIWEIYUANHUI,MINGQUELEGEJIRENMINDAIBIAODAHUIHEZHENGFU、FAYUAN、JIANCHAYUANDENGJIGOUDERENQIJIQILINGDAOCHENGYUANDERENZHIQIXIAN,FEICHULEZHANGQIYILAISHISHISHANGCUNZAIDELINGDAOZHIWUZHONGSHENZHI。ZAIXUANJUZHIDUFANGMIAN,HAIMINGQUEGUIDING,XIANJIHEXIANJIYIXIASHIXINGZHIJIEXUANJU。1982NIAN《XIANFA》DEZHIDINGHESHISHI,FANKAILEWOGUORENMINDAIBIAODAHUIZHIDUJIANSHEDEXINPIANZHANG,DUIWOGUOGENBENZHENGZHIZHIDUDEGONGGU、FAZHANHEWANSHANCHANSHENGLESHENYUANYINGXIANG。

  DIER,SHENKEJIESHIXINXINGSHIXIADANGLINGDAODEDUODANGHEZUOHEZHENGZHIXIESHANGZHIDU、MINZUQUYUZIZHIZHIDUYIJIJICENGQUNZHONGZIZHIZHIDUDENEIHANHETEDIAN,DALITUIJINJIBENZHENGZHIZHIDUDEGUIFANHUAHEFAZHIHUAJIANSHE。GAIGEKAIFANGXINSHIQI,DENGXIAOPINGBAMAKESIZHUYIZHENGDANGLILUN、TONGYIZHANXIANXUESHUOYUWOGUOSHIJIXIANGJIEHE,KEXUEJIEDINGHECHANSHUWOGUOZHENGDANGZHIDUDEJIBENNEIHAN、BENZHITEDIANHEZHONGYAOYUANZE,DADATUIJINLEDANGLINGDAODEDUODANGHEZUOHEZHENGZHIXIESHANGZHIDUZUOWEIWOGUOYIXIANGJIBENZHENGZHIZHIDUDEGUIFANHUAHECHENGXUHUADEJINCHENG。1978NIAN3YUE,DENGXIAOPINGDANGXUANZHENGXIEDIWUJIEQUANGUOWEIYUANHUIZHUXIHOU,BADANGLINGDAODEDUODANGHEZUOHEZHENGZHIXIESHANGTISHENGDAOJIBENZHENGZHIZHIDUDEGAODULAIRENSHI。1979NIAN10YUE,DENGXIAOPINGZHICHU:“ZAIZHONGGUOGONGCHANDANGDELINGDAOXIA,SHIXINGDUODANGPAIDEHEZUO,ZHEISHIWOGUOJUTILISHITIAOJIANHEXIANSHITIAOJIANSUOJUEDINGDE,YESHIWOGUOZHENGZHIZHIDUZHONGDEYIGETEDIANHEYOUDIAN。”(《DENGXIAOPINGWENXUAN》DI2JUAN,DI205YE。)ZAITADEDALITUIDONGXIA,DANGLINGDAODEDUODANGHEZUOHEZHENGZHIXIESHANGZHIDUXIERULEDANGDESHISANDABAOGAO。CIHOU,1989NIAN1YUE,DENGXIAOPINGZAIYIFENGUANYUDANGLINGDAODEDUODANGHEZUOWENTIDEJIANYISHANGPISHI:“KEZUZHIYIGEZHUANMENXIAOZU(CHENGYUANYAOYOUMINZHUDANGPAIDE),ZHUANMENNIDINGMINZHUDANGPAICHENGYUANCANZHENGHELVXINGJIANDUZHIZEDEFANGAN,BINGZAIYINIANNEIWANCHENG,MINGNIANKAISHISHIXING。”(《DENGXIAOPINGNIANPU(1975—1997)》(XIA),ZHONGYANGWENXIANCHUBANSHE,2004NIAN,DI1262YE。)ANZHAODENGXIAOPINGDEPISHIJINGSHEN,JINGGUOYINIANDESHENRUYANTAO、QICAOHEFANFUXIUGAI,ZHONGGONGZHONGYANGZAITONGGEMINZHUDANGPAIZHONGYANGGONGTONGXIESHANGDEJICHUSHANGZHIDINGLE《GUANYUJIANCHIHEWANSHANZHONGGUOGONGCHANDANGLINGDAODEDUODANGHEZUOHEZHENGZHIXIESHANGZHIDUDEYIJIAN》。ZHEIGEWENJIANSHENKEZONGJIELEZHONGGUOGONGCHANDANGHEGEMINZHUDANGPAIZHANGQIHEZUODECHENGGONGJINGYANHEYOULIANGCHUANTONG,MINGQUETICHULE“ZHONGGUOGONGCHANDANGLINGDAODEDUODANGHEZUOHEZHENGZHIXIESHANGZHIDUSHIWOGUOYIXIANGJIBENZHENGZHIZHIDU”GAINIAN,MINGQUETICHULEJUYOUDUCHUANGXINGDE“CANZHENGDANG”DEGAINIAN。《YIJIAN》DEZHIDINGHESHISHI,CHONGFENTIXIANLEZHONGGUOGONGCHANDANGHEGEMINZHUDANGPAI、WUDANGPAIDAIBIAORENSHIDEGONGTONGYIZHI,SHIXINSHIQIJIANCHIHEWANSHANGONGCHANDANGLINGDAODEDUODANGHEZUOHEZHENGZHIXIESHANGZHIDUDELILUNYIJUHESHISHIZHUNZE。SUIZHE《YIJIAN》DEXUANCHUAN、GUANCHEHELUOSHI,ZHONGGUOGONGCHANDANGTONGMINZHUDANGPAIHEZUODEZHENGZHIJICHUGENGJIAGONGGU,ZHENGZHIXIESHANG、MINZHUJIANDUYEKAISHIZHUBUZOUXIANGZHIDUHUA、GUIFANHUA。

  HUIFUHEWANSHANMINZUQUYUZIZHIZHIDUSHIDENGXIAOPINGGUANZHUDEZHONGDIAN。MINZUQUYUZIZHIZHIDUDEXINGZHI、ZAIGUOJIAZHONGDEDIWEI,YIJISHIXINGMINZUQUYUZIZHIDEJIBENYUANZEZAIXINZHONGGUOCHENGLIHOUDELIBU《XIANFA》ZHONGDOUZUOLEGUIDING,ZHEISHISHISHANGJIUBAMINZUQUYUZIZHIZUOWEIWOGUODEYIXIANGJIBENZHENGZHIZHIDUYIGUOJIAGENBENDAFADEXINGSHIGUDINGLEXIALAI。RANER,YOUYU“WENHUADAGEMING”DEYANZHONGPOHUAI,MINZUQUYUZIZHIZHIDUZAI《XIANFA》ZHONGCHUXIANYANZHONGDAOTUI。ZHENDUIZHEIZHONGQINGKUANG,1980NIAN8YUE,DENGXIAOPINGZAI《DANGHEGUOJIALINGDAOZHIDUDEGAIGE》ZHONGZHONGSHEN,YAOSHIGESHAOSHUMINZUJUJUDEDIFANGZHENZHENGSHIXINGMINZUQUYUZIZHI。1981NIAN6YUE,TAZAIZHUCHIQICAO《GUANYUJIANGUOYILAIDANGDERUOGANLISHIWENTIDEJUEYI》(YIXIAJIANCHENG《JUEYI》)SHIMINGQUEZHICHU:BIXUJIANCHISHIXINGMINZUQUYUZIZHI,JIAQIANGMINZUQUYUZIZHIDEFAZHIJIANSHE,BAOZHANGGESHAOSHUMINZUDIQUGENJUBENDISHIJIQINGKUANGGUANCHEZHIXINGDANGHEGUOJIAZHENGCEDEZIZHUQUAN。ZHEIXIELUNSHUWEIHUIFUMINZUQUYUZIZHIZHIDUDEDIWEITIGONGLEZHONGYAODELILUNYIJU。1982NIAN《XIANFA》,BUDANHUIFULE1954NIAN《XIANFA》GUANYUMINZUQUYUZIZHIDEYIXIEZHONGYAOYUANZE,HAIYOUZHENDUIXINGDIZENGJIALEJINYIBUTIXIANSHEHUIZHUYIMINZUPINGDENG、TUANJIE、HUZHUGUANXIDERUOGANXINGUIDING,BUTONGCHENGDUDIKUODALEGEJIZIZHIDIFANGZIZHUQUANDEZIZHUFANWEI。ZAIXINSHIQI,MINZUQUYUZIZHIZHIDUJIANSHEQUDEDEZUIZHONGDACHENGGUOZHIYIJIUSHI1984NIANBANBUDE《ZHONGHUARENMINGONGHEGUOMINZUQUYUZIZHIFA》。ZHEISHIYIBUSHISHI《XIANFA》GUANYUMINZUQUYUZIZHIZHIDUDEZHONGYAOFALVWENBEN,TAXIQULEXINZHONGGUOCHENGLIYILAI30DUONIANSHIXINGMINZUQUYUZIZHIHEMINZULIFAGONGZUODEJINGYAN,CHONGFENKAOLVLEWOGUOMINZUZIZHIDIFANGDETEDIANHEXUYAO,DUIMINZUQUYUZIZHIZUOLEBIJIAOQUANMIANDE、MINGQUEDEGUIDING。TADEBANBUSHISHI,BUJINBIAOZHIZHEWOGUOMINZUQUYUZIZHIGONGZUOYIJINGYOUFAKEYI,ERQIEHAIBIAOZHIZHEZHONGGUOTESEDEMINZUZIZHIFALVTIXIDECHUBUXINGCHENG。

  JICENGMINZHUZIZHIZAIXINZHONGGUOCHENGLIHOUDEMINZHUSHIJIANZHONGYIJINGYOULECHUBUSHISHI,DANSHIBATAZUOWEIYIXIANGJUYOUQUANMIANFALVBAOZHANGDE、XITONGDEJIBENZHENGZHIZHIDU,ZESHIZAIGAIGEKAIFANGXINSHIQI。1980NIAN8YUE,DENGXIAOPINGZAIYOUGUANXIUGAI《XIANFA》DEJIANYIZHONGQIANGDIAO:“YAOSHIWOMENDEXIANFAGENGJIAWANBEI、ZHOUMI、ZHUNQUE,NENGGOUQIESHIBAOZHENGRENMINZHENZHENGXIANGYOUGUANLIGUOJIAGEJIZUZHIHEGEXIANGQIYESHIYEDEQUANLI,XIANGYOUCHONGFENDEGONGMINQUANLI。”(《DENGXIAOPINGWENXUAN》DI2JUAN,DI339YE。)ZHENGSHITIXIANZHEIYANGDEYUANZEHEYAOQIU,《JUEYI》MINGQUETICHUZAIJICENGZHENGQUANHEJICENGSHEHUISHENGHUOZHONGYAOZHUBUSHIXIANRENMINDEZHIJIEMINZHU。1986NIAN,DENGXIAOPINGZAITANDAOZHENGZHITIZHIGAIGEDESANDAMUBIAOSHI,JINYIBUQIANGDIAOYAODIAODONGJICENGHEGONGREN、NONGMIN、ZHISHIFENZIDEJIJIXING。TASHUO:“RANGTAMENCANYUGUANLI,SHIXIANGUANLIMINZHUHUA”(《DENGXIAOPINGWENXUAN》DI3JUAN,DI180YE。)SHIZHENGZHITIZHIGAIGEDEMUBIAOZHIYI。ZAIDENGXIAOPINGDEYINDAOXIA,ZI20SHIJI80NIANDAIQI,JICENGMINZHUZIZHIZHIDUJIANSHETEBIESHIZUOWEIQIZUZHIZAITIDEQUNZHONGXINGZIZHIZUZHIJIANSHEQUDEMINGXIANJINZHAN。1986NIAN9YUE,GUOWUYUANFABU《QUANMINSUOYOUZHIGONGYEQIYEZHIGONGDAIBIAODAHUITIAOLI》。1987NIAN11YUE、1989NIAN12YUEQUANGUORENDAHEGUOWUYUANYOUXIANGJIBANBULE《ZHONGHUARENMINGONGHEGUOCUNMINWEIYUANHUIZUZHIFA(SHIXING)》《ZHONGHUARENMINGONGHEGUOCHENGSHIJUMINWEIYUANHUIZUZHIFA》。ZAIRIYIWANSHANDEFALVHEXINGZHENGFAGUIDEBAOHUXIA,JICENGMINZHUZIZHIZHIDUDEDAOLEKUAISUFAZHAN,CUNWEIHUI、JUWEIHUI、ZHIGONGDAIBIAODAHUIPUBIANJIANLIHUOZHUBUJIANQUANWANSHAN,YOUQISHIGUANGDANONGCUNZHONGYICUNWEIHUIXUANJUWEIZHUYAOXINGSHIDEJICENGMINZHUYINGXIANGHENDA,XIAOGUOHENHAO。CIHOU,ZAIZONGJIEJINGYANDEJICHUSHANG,NONGCUNZHONGGUANGFANSHIXINGLECUNWUGONGKAIHEMINZHUGUANLIZHIDU,TUIJINJICENGMINZHUZIZHIZHIDUBUDUANSHENRUFAZHAN。

  DISAN,ZHENGQUEBAWOWOGUOJINGJIFAZHANDELISHIFANGWEI,YINDAOGONGYOUZHISHIXIANXINGSHIGAIGE,CUCHENGJIBENJINGJIZHIDUDEZHONGDABIANGEHEDIAOZHENG。JIBENJINGJIZHIDUSHIZHITONGGUO《XIANFA》HEFALVDIAOZHENGYISHENGCHANZILIAOSUOYOUZHIXINGSHIWEIHEXINDEGEZHONGJIBENJINGJIGUANXIDEGUIZE、YUANZEHEZHENGCEDEZONGCHENG。XINZHONGGUOCHENGLIHOU,JINGGUOSHEHUIZHUYIGAIZAO,DAOGAIGEKAIFANGQIAN,WOGUOZHUBUXINGCHENGLEYIDANYIGONGYOUZHIJIEGOUWEIZHUYAOTEDIANDEJIBENJINGJIZHIDU。ZHEIZHONGXINGSHIDEJIBENJINGJIZHIDUDUIXINZHONGGUOJIANSHESHIYEDEFAZHANCENGJINGFAHUILEJIJIZUOYONG,DANSHISUIZHEJINGJIGONGZUOQUANMIANZHANKAI,ZHEIZHONGZHIDUCHUXIANLEQUEFAXIAOLV、JINGJIYUNXINGZHILIANGDIXIA、JINGJIBODONGQIFUJIAODA、JINGJIZIYUANLANGFEIYANZHONGDENGWENTI,BAOLULEJIBENJINGJIZHIDUYUSHENGCHANLIFAZHANBUXIANGSHIYINGDEMAODUNHEWENTI。GAIGEKAIFANGXINSHIQI,DENGXIAOPINGZAILAOLAOBAWOSHEHUIZHUYIDAFANGXIANGDEQIANTIXIA,CONGWOGUOSHEHUIZHUYICHUJIJIEDUANDEKEGUANSHIJICHUFA,KAISHICONGSUOYOUZHIJIEGOUFANGMIANDUIWOGUOJIBENJINGJIZHIDUJINXINGDADANGAIGE。DENGXIAOPINGSHUO:“YIGEGONGYOUZHIZHANZHUTI,YIGEGONGTONGFUYU,ZHEISHIWOMENSUOBIXUJIANCHIDESHEHUIZHUYIDEGENBENYUANZE。”(《DENGXIAOPINGWENXUAN》DI3JUAN,DI111YE。)ZHIHOU,TAJINYIBUTICHULE“SHEHUIZHUYIYUANZE,DIYISHIFAZHANSHENGCHAN,DIERSHIGONGTONGZHIFU”(《DENGXIAOPINGWENXUAN》DI3JUAN,DI172YE。)DEMINGTI。ZAICIJICHUSHANG,TATANDAOLESHEHUIZHUYIJIBENJINGJIZHIDUGAIGEDESANYUANZE,YISHIFAZHANSHENGCHANLI,ERSHIGONGYOUZHIWEIZHUTI,SANSHIGONGTONGFUYU,BINGRENWEIZHEISHIYIGEYOUJITONGYIDEZHENGTI。DENGXIAOPINGDESHANGSHUSIXIANG,SHOUXIANZAI《JUEYI》ZHONGDEDAOCHANFA。《JUEYI》ZHICHU:SHEHUIZHUYISHENGCHANGUANXIBIXUSHIYINGYUSHENGCHANLIDEZHUANGKUANG,CAIYOULIYUSHENGCHANLIDEFAZHAN。GUOYINGJINGJIYUJITIJINGJISHIWOGUOJINGJIDEJIBENXINGSHI,YIDINGFANWEIDELAODONGZHEGETIJINGJISHIGONGYOUZHIJINGJIDEBIYAOBUCHONG。ZHEISHIDANGDEWENXIANZHONG,DIYICICONGSHENGCHANLIYUSHENGCHANGUANXIJIAODULAISHUOMINGSUOYOUZHIJIEGOUWENTI,BINGTICHULEFEIGONGYOUZHIJINGJISHIGONGYOUZHIJINGJI“BUCHONG”DESIXIANG。SUIHOU,1982 NIAN《XIANFA》ZHENGSHITICHU:ZHONGHUARENMINGONGHEGUODESHEHUIZHUYIJINGJIZHIDUJICHUSHISHENGCHANZILIAOSHEHUIZHUYIGONGYOUZHI,JIQUANMINSUOYOUZHIHELAODONGQUNZHONGJITISUOYOUZHI,ZAIFALVGUIDINGFANWEINEIDECHENGXIANGLAODONGZHEGETIJINGJI,SHISHEHUIZHUYIGONGYOUZHIJINGJIDEBUCHONG,GUOJIABAOHUGETIJINGJIHEFAQUANLIHELIYI。DANGDESHISANDAGENGJIAMINGQUEZHICHU:SIYINGJINGJI、ZHONGWAIHEZIHEZUOQIYEHEWAISHANGDUZIQIYEDENGFEIGONGYOUZHIJINGJI,SHIGONGYOUZHIBIYAODEHEYOUYIDEBUCHONG。YOUGETIJINGJIZUOWEIBIYAODEBUCHONG,FAZHANDAOSIYINGJINGJI、“SANZI”QIYEDENGFEIGONGYOUZHIJINGJIDOUSHIGONGYOUZHIJINGJIBIYAODEYOUYIDEBUCHONG,GONGYOUZHISHIXIANXINGSHIDETANSUOBUDUANQUDEXINDETUPO。CIHOU,DENGXIAOPINGZAINANFANGTANHUAZHONGZHICHU,SHEHUIZHUYIKEYIGAOSHICHANGJINGJI。ZHEIGENGJIAJIEFANGLERENMENDESIXIANG。ERSHIJIANBIAOMING,DANYIGONGYOUZHIWUFASHIXIANSHICHANGJINGJI,SHICHANGJINGJIXUYAODUOZHONGSUOYOUZHIJINGJIBINGCUN。YOUCI,DANGDESHISIDAQUELILEYIGONGYOUZHIWEIZHUTI,DUOZHONGJINGJICHENGFENGONGTONGFAZHANDEFANGZHEN,DANGDESHIWUDAZUIZHONGQUELILEWOGUOSHEHUIZHUYICHUJIJIEDUANDEJIBENJINGJIZHIDU,JIYIGONGYOUZHIWEIZHUTIDUOZHONGSUOYOUZHIJINGJIGONGTONGFAZHANDEJIBENJINGJIZHIDU。

  DISI,CHONGFENRENSHITIZHIJIZHIZAIZHIDUJIANSHEZHONGDETESHUDIWEIHEZHONGYAOZUOYONG,YIJINGJITIZHIGAIGEWEITUPOKOU,QUANMIANQIDONGZHENGZHI、WENHUA、SHEHUIDENGGEXIANGJUTITIZHIJIZHIGAIGE,ZHENGTIXINGTISHENGLEZHIDUJIANSHEDEZHILIANGHESHUIPING。TIZHIJIZHISHIGUOJIAJIBENZHIDUDEZHONGYAOTIXIANXINGSHI,SHIWEIJIBENZHIDUFUWUDE。TIZHIJIZHIYESHILIANXISHENGCHANLI、SHENGCHANGUANXIHESHANGCENGJIANZHUZHIJIANDEJIEHEDIAN,SHISANZHEZHIJIANFASHENGXIANGHULIANXI、FASHENGZUOYONGDEQIAOLIANGHENIUDAI,YINCI,TIZHIJIZHIDEJIANLI、GAIGEHEWANSHAN,SHIGUOJIAJIBENZHIDUJIANSHEBUKEHUOQUEDEZHONGYAONEIRONG。KEGUANDISHUO,CONGXINZHONGGUOCHENGLIHOUDEFAZHANLICHENGKAN,TIZHIJIZHIJIANSHESHIGUOJIAZHIDUZHONGZUIBORUOHUANJIEZHIYI。GAIGEKAIFANGDESHIJIANZHONG,DENGXIAOPINGCHONGFENRENSHIDAOTIZHIJIZHIJIANSHEDEZHONGYAOXING,BINGYIJINGJITIZHIGAIGEWEITUPOKOU,QUANMIANQIDONGLEGEXIANGTIZHIJIZHIDEGAIGEHEJIANSHE。

华夏棋牌  GAIGEKAIFANGXINSHIQI,DENGXIAOPINGMINRUIDIRENSHIDAOJINGJITIZHIDEZHENGJIESUOZAI。TAZHICHU,JINGJITIZHIYOULIANGFANGMIANGENBENQUEXIAN:YISHIZAIZHIDAOSIXIANGSHANGTUOLILEFAZHANSHENGCHANLIZHEIYIHEXIN;ERSHIZAIYUNZUOSHANGQUANLIGUOYUJIZHONG,XINGZHENGSECAITAINONG,BUSHIYONGJINGJIFANGFAGUANLIJINGJI,GAIGEBIXUZAIZHEIFANGMIANJINXING。TAQIANGDIAO:WEILEYOULIYUJIEFANGSHENGCHANLI,FAZHANSHENGCHANLI,BIXUDUIJIHUAJINGJITIZHIJINXINGGAIGE,HEXINJIUSHIYAOJIEJUEHAOJIHUAHESHICHANGDEGUANXI。ZAIZHEIGEGAIGESIXIANGZHIDAOXIA,20SHIJI80NIANDAIKAISHIDEWOGUOJINGJITIZHIGAIGEZHUYAOJIUSHIWEIRAOJIHUAYUSHICHANGGUANXIZHANKAIDE。1984NIANDANGDESHIERJIESANZHONGQUANHUITONGGUODE《ZHONGGONGZHONGYANGGUANYUJINGJITIZHIGAIGEDEJUEDING》,QUERENZHONGGUOSHEHUIZHUYIJINGJISHIGONGYOUZHIJICHUSHANGDE“YOUJIHUADESHANGPINJINGJI”,SHOUCIJIANGSHANGPINJINGJINARUSHEHUIZHUYIJINGJIYUNXINGDEJICHUKUANGJIA。1987NIANDANGDESHISANDAJINYIBUTICHU,SHEHUIZHUYIYOUJIHUASHANGPINJINGJIDETIZHIYINGGAISHIJIHUAYUSHICHANGNEIZAITONGYIDETIZHI,ZONGTISHANGLAISHUOSHIGUOJIADIAOJIESHICHANG,SHICHANGYINDAOQIYEDEJIZHI。ZHEIJIUJINYIBUTIGAOLESHICHANGJIZHIZAIJINGJIHUODONGZHONGDEDIWEI。ERDENGXIAOPINGNANFANGTANHUAZHONGYOUGUANJIHUAYUSHICHANGGUANXIDECHANSHU,ZECONGGENBENSHANGPOCHULEBAJIHUAJINGJIHESHICHANGJINGJIKANZUOSHUYU“SHEHUIJIBENZHIDU”FANCHOUDESIXIANGSHUFU,JIEJUELEGUANYUSHICHANGJINGJIBINGFEIZIBENZHUYIZHUANYOUSHUXINGZHEIYIZHONGDARENSHIWENTI,WEIDANGDESHISIDAQUELISHEHUIZHUYISHICHANGJINGJITIZHIDEMUBIAOMOSHISAOQINGLEZHANGAI。

华夏棋牌  YUJINGJITIZHIGAIGEXIANGYIZHI、XIANGXIEDIAO,DENGXIAOPINGHAIDALIZHICHIHETUIDONGZHENGZHITIZHI、WENHUATIZHIHESHEHUITIZHIDENGGEXIANGTIZHIJIZHIDEGAIGE。TADE《DANGHEGUOJIALINGDAOZHIDUDEGAIGE》DEZHONGYAOJIANGHUA,XITONGCHANSHULEWOGUOZHENGZHITIZHIGAIGEDEZHIDAOSIXIANGHEJIBENSILU,SHIXINSHIQIWOGUOZHENGZHITIZHIGAIGEDEGANGLINGXINGWENJIAN。ZAIWENHUAZHIDUJIANSHESHANG,DENGXIAOPINGQIANGDIAO,YAOZAIJIANSHEGAODUWUZHIWENMINGDETONGSHI,TIGAOQUANMINZUDEKEXUEWENHUASHUIPING,FAZHANGAOSHANGDEFENGFUDUOCAIDEWENHUASHENGHUO,JIANSHEGAODUDESHEHUIZHUYIJINGSHENWENMING。TARENWEI,JIAQIANGWENHUAJIANSHESHOUXIANYAODUIGAODUJIZHONGDEWENHUAGUANLITIZHIJINXINGGAIGE,JIJITANSUOJIANLIYUGEXIANGGAIGEXIANGSHIYINGDEWENHUAFAZHANXINJIZHI。ZAISHEHUIZHIDUJIANSHESHANG,DENGXIAOPINGZHANZAISHIXIANRENMINGONGTONGFUYUHEWEIHUSHEHUIGONGPINGZHENGYIDEGAODU,FANFUQIANGDIAO,“WENDINGYADAOYIQIE”,YAONULIGOUJIANWENDINGJIZHI,WEISHEHUILIANGXINGYUNXINGTIGONGQIANTIHEBAOZHANG。TAZHUZHANGTONGCHOUQUYUFAZHAN、CHENGXIANGFAZHAN,BAYOUHUASHEHUIJIEGOUZUOWEITUIJINSHEHUIJIANSHEDEJICHU。TAYAOQIUJIANLIGONGPINGGONGZHENGDESHOURUFENPEITIZHI,JIJIJIANLIKEXUEYOUXIAODELAODONGJIUYEJIZHI。ZHEIXIETANSUOHESHIJIANWEIXINSHIQIWOGUOSHEHUIZHIDUJIANSHEDEQUANMIANZHANKAICHUANGZAOLEJIBENTIAOJIAN。

华夏棋牌  DIWU,GAODUZHONGSHIFAZHIJIANSHE,ZHUZHONGFAHUIFALVZAIZHONGGUOTESESHEHUIZHUYIZHIDUCHUANGJIANZHONGDEGUIFAN、YINDAO、BAOZHANGHECUJINZUOYONG。FALVTIXIZUOWEISHANGCENGJIANZHUDEZUCHENGBUFEN,SHIYIFALVXINGSHIFANYINGHEGUIFANGUOJIAJINGJI、ZHENGZHI、WENHUAHESHEHUIDEGEXIANGZHIDU。YINCI,ZHONGGUOTESESHEHUIZHUYIFALVTIXIDEXINGCHENGGUOCHENGCONGBENZHISHANGKANYESHIZHONGGUOTESESHEHUIZHUYIZHIDUCHUANGJIANGUOCHENG。ZAIGAIGEKAIFANGDESHIJIANZHONG,DENGXIAOPINGFEICHANGZHONGSHIJISHIBASHIJIANJINGYANSHANGSHENGWEIFALV,TONGSHIJIJITUIDONGXIUGAI、ZHIDINGHEWANSHANXIANGYINGDEFALVZHIDU,HENHAODIFAHUILEFALVZAIZHONGGUOTESESHEHUIZHUYIZHIDUCHUANGJIANZHONGDEZUOYONG。ZAOZAI1978NIANZHONGYANGGONGZUOHUIYIBIMUHUIDEJIANGHUAZHONG,DENGXIAOPINGJIUZHICHU:“XIANZAIDEWENTISHIFALVHENBUWANBEI,HENDUOFALVHAIMEIYOUZHIDINGCHULAI”(《DENGXIAOPINGWENXUAN》DI2JUAN,DI146YE。)。WEILEGAIBIANZHEIZHONGZHUANGKUANG,DENGXIAOPINGZAIZHEIGEJIANGHUAZHONGBIJIAOXITONGDITICHULEFAZHIJIANSHEDEMUBIAOHERENWU。TARENWEI,YINGGAIJIZHONGLILIANGZHIDINGXINGFA、MINFA、SUSONGFAHEQITAGEZHONGBIYAODEFALV,LIRUSENLINFA、CAOYUANFA、HUANJINGBAOHUFA、LAODONGFA、WAIGUORENTOUZIFADENGDENG,JINGGUOYIDINGDEMINZHUCHENGXUTAOLUNTONGGUO,BINGQIEJIAQIANGJIANCHAJIGUANHESIFAJIGUAN,ZUODAOYOUFAKEYI,YOUFABIYI,ZHIFABIYAN,WEIFABIJIU。JIANYUFAZHIJIANSHESHIFENBORUODEZHUANGKUANG,DENGXIAOPINGQIANGDIAO,FALVTIAOWENKAISHIKEYICUYIDIAN,ZHUBUWANSHAN。YOUDEFAGUI,DIFANGKEYIXIANSHIYAN,RANHOUJINGGUOZONGJIETIGAO,ZHIDINGQUANGUOTONGXINGDEFALV。DENGXIAOPINGDEZHEIXIESIXIANGDUIJIAKUAIFAZHIJIANSHECHANSHENGLEZHIJIEYINGXIANG。DANGDESHIERDATICHUYAOJIAQIANGFAZHIJIANSHEBINGQIEYAOQIUZHUBUJIANGFAZHIRONGRUJINGJI、WENHUAHESHEHUISHENGHUODEGEGECENGMIAN。1982NIAN《XIANFA》JIUZUOCHULEXUDUOJUYOUZHONGDAYIYIDEXINGUIDING,SHIWOGUOFAZHIJIANSHEJINRULEXINJIEDUAN。DANGDESHISANDAJINYIBUQIANGDIAO,FAZHIJIANSHEBIXUGUANCHUANYUGAIGEDEQUANGUOCHENG,YINGXINGYINGGEDESHIQING,YAOJINKENENGYONGFALVHUOZHIDUDEXINGSHIJIAYIMINGQUE。ZHEIGESHIQI,ZAIXITONGCHANFASHEHUIZHUYICHUJIJIEDUANLILUNDEJICHUSHANG,DENGXIAOPINGMINGQUEZHICHU,MINZHUHEFAZHISHIJIANSHESHEHUIZHUYIXIANDAIHUAGUOJIADEMUBIAOZHIYI,QIANGDIAOYAOYIFAZHIJIANSHELAIBAOZHANGGAIGEDEZHIXUHECHENGGUO。YOUYUDUIFALVJIANSHEDEGAODUZHONGSHI,JINGGUOGAIGEKAIFANGHOUSHIDUONIANDESHIJIAN,GEZHONGZHUYAOFALVFAGUIDEDAOLEHUIFUHEFAZHAN,FALVFAGUIDIAOZHENGDESHEHUIGUANXIYESHIFENGUANGFAN,SHEHUISHENGHUODEGEGEZHUYAOFANGMIANYIZAIBUTONGCHENGDUSHANGZUODAOYOUFAKEYI,TEBIESHITUPOLEZHENGZHI、TIZHIDEJINQU,QUELILEXIANDAIDEFALVJIAZHITIXI,LIFAGUIMO、ZHILIANG、JIEGOUKONGQIANYOUHUA,JINGJILIFAGAOCHAODIEQI,FANKAILESHEHUIZHUYISHICHANGJINGJIFALVTIXIJIANSHEDEXINPIANZHANG。

华夏棋牌  LISHIBIAOMING,XINSHIQIDENGXIAOPINGDEZHIDUJIANSHESIXIANGHESHIJIAN,JUYOUXIANMINGDECHENGQIANQIHOU、KAITUOCHUANGXINDEYIYIHETEDIAN,TAJIANGXINZHONGGUOCHENGLIYILAISHEHUIZHUYIZHIDUJIANSHEDEJIJICHENGGUO,YINRUXINSHIQIDEZHIDUJIANSHEZHONG,BINGJIEHEGAIGEKAIFANGDEXINTANSUO,JIJIKAITUOSHEHUIZHUYIZHIDUJIANSHEDEZHONGGUOHUASHIJIAN,SHIWOGUODEZHIDUJIANSHEJIANDINGDIZOUSHANGLEYIJIANSHEZHONGGUOTESESHEHUIZHUYIZHIDUWEIMUBIAODEDAOLU。

华夏棋牌  DENGXIAOPINGZHONGGUOTESESHEHUIZHUYIZHIDUJIANSHEDEZHONGYAOQISHI

  DENGXIAOPINGDEZHIDUJIANSHESIXIANGHESHIJIAN,SHENSHENGENZHIYUGAIGEKAIFANGHESHEHUIZHUYIXIANDAIHUAJIANSHEDEWOTUZHIZHONG,FUHEWOGUOGUOQING,SHUNYINGSHIDAICHAOLIU,JUYOUXIANMINGTEDIAN。QIZAITANSUOZHONGXINGCHENGDESIXIANGLILUNCHENGGUO,JILEIDEFENGFUSHIJIANJINGYAN,BUJINDADASHENHUALEDANGDUIZHONGGUOTESESHEHUIZHUYIZHIDUJIANSHEGUILVDERENSHI,ERQIEDUIJIANSHEGENGJIACHENGSHU、GENGJIADINGXINGDEZHONGGUOTESESHEHUIZHUYIZHIDUJUYOUSHIFENZHONGYAODEQISHIYIYI。

  DIYI,ZHONGGUOTESESHEHUIZHUYIZHIDUJIANSHEBIXUSHIZHONGJIANCHISHEHUIZHUYIDEGENBENFANGXIANG。ZHONGGUOTESESHEHUIZHUYIZHIDUBUSHISHENMEBIEDEZHIDU,TASHOUXIANSHISHEHUIZHUYIZHIDU。WOGUODESHEHUIZHUYIZHIDUSHILISHIDEXUANZE,RENMINDEXUANZE,SHIDANGDAIZHONGGUODEGENBENZHIDU。DENGXIAOPINGZHICHU:RUGUOWOMENBUJIANCHISHEHUIZHUYI,ZUIZHONGFAZHANQILAIYEBUGUOCHENGWEIYIGEFUSHUGUO。RUGUOFOUDINGLEWOGUOSHEHUIZHUYIDEGENBENZHIDU,HUOYISHIXIANZHIDUJIANSHEDEMINGYIZHAOBANXIFANGZIBENZHUYIZHIDU,BIRANHUIDAOZHIQUANSHEHUIDEHUNLUAN,SANGSHIWENDINGFAZHANDEDAHAOJUMIAN,SHENZHIHUIWANGDANGWANGGUO。DENGXIAOPINGDEZHIDUJIANSHESHIJIANGAOSUWOMEN,ZHONGGUOTESESHEHUIZHUYIZHIDUJIANSHEJIYAOYOU“MAO”DEYONGQI、“CHUANG”DEJINGTOU,GENGYAOYOUZHANLVEDINGLIHEDIXIANSIWEI。SUOWEIZHANLVEDINGLI,JIUSHIYAOZAIJIANCHIZOUZHONGGUOTESESHEHUIZHUYIDAOLUSHANGBUNENGYOUSIHAODONGYAO;SUOWEIDIXIANSIWEI,JIUSHIYAOJIANJUESHOUZHUZHONGGUOTESESHEHUIZHUYIZHIDUZHEITIAODIXIAN,JIANJUEFANDUIRENHEGAIBIANSHEHUIZHUYIZHIDUXINGZHIDETUMOU,BUWEIGEZHONGCUOWUGUANDIANSUOZUOYOU,BUWEIGEZHONGGANRAOSUOHUO,BUSHENGBANYINGTAOXIFANGSIXIANGLILUNHEZHIDUMOSHI,JIANCHIYIQIECONGSHIJICHUFA,YIWOWEIZHU,GAIGAIDEJIANJUEGAI,BUNENGGAIDEJIANJUESHOUZHU,LAOLAOBAWOZHONGGUOTESESHEHUIZHUYIZHIDUJIANSHEDELINGDAOQUANHEZHUDONGQUAN。

华夏棋牌  DIER,ZHONGGUOTESESHEHUIZHUYIZHIDUJIANSHESHIYIGEZHANGQIDE、JIANJINDEGUOCHENG。JIANSHEZHONGGUOTESESHEHUIZHUYIZHIDUXUYAODUIBUHELIDEJIUTIZHIJIZHIJINXINGGAIGE,ZHEI“BUHUISHIYIFANFENGSHUNDE,TASHEJIDEMIANHENGUANG,SHEJIYIDAPIRENDEQIESHENLIYI,YIDINGHUICHUXIANGEZHONGGEYANGDEFUZAQINGKUANGHEWENTI,YIDINGHUIYUDAOZHONGZHONGZHANGAI”《DENGXIAOPINGWENXUAN》DI2JUAN,DI152YE。。DENGXIAOPINGSHUO:“WOMENZHEIYIDAIRENYEXUBUNENGQUANBUWANCHENG,DANSHI,ZHISHAOWOMENYOUZERENWEITADEWANCHENGDIANDINGGONGGUDEJICHU,QUELIZHENGQUEDEFANGXIANG。”(《DENGXIAOPINGWENXUAN》DI2JUAN,DI342、343YE。)DENGXIAOPINGDEZHIDUJIANSHESHIJIANGAOSUWOMEN,ZHIDUJIANSHEBUNENGBIQIGONGYUYIYI,YAOYOUZHANLVEYANGUANG,YAOYOUQUANJUBUSHU,BINGXUNXUJIANJIN、FENBUZHOUFENJIEDUANTUIJINSHISHI。YAOJIANCHIYOUYIXIANGNAN、YOUWAIDAONEI、YOUQIANRUSHENDEJIANJINFAZHANFANGFA。YAOZHENGQUECHULIHAOGAIGE、FAZHANHEWENDINGDEGUANXI,BAOZHENGSANZHEDEXIEDIAOTONGYIHEXIANGHUCUJIN。ZHIYOUNULIBAGAIGEDELIDU、FAZHANDESUDUHESHEHUIKECHENGSHOUDECHENGDUTONGYIQILAI,ZHIDUJIANSHECAINENGCHENGXIANCHONGMANHUOLIERYOUHEXIEWENDINGDEXINQIXIANG。

  DISAN,ZHONGGUOTESESHEHUIZHUYIZHIDUJIANSHEYAOJIANCHIGAIGE,BINGBUDUANSHENHUAGAIGE。GAIGESHIZHONGGUODEDIERCIGEMING。DENGXIAOPINGZHICHU:“ZHEICHANGGEMINGJIYAODAFUDUDIGAIBIANMUQIANLUOHOUDESHENGCHANLI,JIUBIRANYAODUOFANGMIANDIGAIBIANSHENGCHANGUANXI,GAIBIANSHANGCENGJIANZHU,GAIBIANGONGNONGYEQIYEDEGUANLIFANGSHIHEGUOJIADUIGONGNONGYEQIYEDEGUANLIFANGSHI,SHIZHISHIYINGYUXIANDAIHUADAJINGJIDEXUYAO。”(《DENGXIAOPINGWENXUAN》DI2JUAN,DI135—136YE。)DENGXIAOPINGDEZHIDUJIANSHESHIJIANGAOSUWOMEN,GAIGEZUOWEIYICHANGXINDEGEMING,BUSHIYEBUYUNXUFOUDINGHEPAOQIYIJINGJIANLIQILAIDESHEHUIZHUYIJIBENZHIDU。TONGSHI,GAIGEYEBUSHIDUIYUANYOUTIZHIJIZHIDEXIZHIMOJIEDEXIUBU,ERSHIDUITIZHIJIZHIDEGENBENXINGGAIGE,TADESHIZHIHEMUBIAOSHIYAOCONGGENBENSHANGGAIBIANSHUFUWOGUOSHENGCHANLIFAZHANDEJINGJITIZHI,JIANLICHONGMANSHENGJIHEHUOLIDESHEHUIZHUYIXINJINGJITIZHI,TONGSHIXIANGYINGDIGAIGEZHENGZHI、WENHUA、SHEHUITIZHIHEQITAFANGMIANDETIZHIJIZHI,YISHIXIANZHONGGUODESHEHUIZHUYIZHIDUDEXIANDAIHUA。MEIYOUGAIGE,MEIYOUGAIGEDEBUDUANSHENHUA,JIUTANBUSHANGJIANLIXINTIZHI、XINJIZHI,ERGAIGEDECHENGGUOYEZHIYOUTONGGUOYIDINGDEZHIDU、FALVQUEDINGXIALAI,CAINENGGENGYOULIYUGAIGEDEJINYIBUJIANKANGFAZHAN。

  DISI,ZHONGGUOTESESHEHUIZHUYIZHIDUJIANSHEYAOYIRENMINQUNZHONGDEGENBENLIYIWEICHUFADIANHELUOJIAODIAN。RENMINSHIGUOJIADEZHUREN,SHISHEHUIZHUYIGAIGEKAIFANGDESHIJIANZHUTI,SHIJUEDINGWOGUOQIANTUHEMINGYUNDEGENBENLILIANG。DENGXIAOPINGZHIDUJIANSHEDESIXIANGHESHIJIANYIGETUCHUTEDIAN,JIUSHILIZUYURENMINQUNZHONGGENBENLIYI。TAZUNZHONGRENMINZHUTIDIWEI,ZHONGSHIFAHUIQUNZHONGSHOUCHUANGJINGSHEN。TABUJINJINJINYIKAORENMINQUNZHONGTUIDONGZHIDUJIANSHEBUDUANXIANGQIANFAZHAN,ERQIERANGRENMINQUNZHONGCONGRIYIWANSHANDEZHIDUZHONGHUODEQIESHIDELIYIHEBAOZHANG。DENGXIAOPINGDEZHIDUJIANSHESHIJIANGAOSUWOMEN,ZHIDUJIANSHEBIXUZUODAOMOUHUABUSHUJIQURENMINZHIHUI,TUIJINSHIJIANNINGJURENMINLILIANG,JIANYANCHENGGUOYIKAORENMINPINGPAN,SHIZHENGGEJIANSHEGUOCHENGCHENGWEIRENMINGUANGFANCANYU、PUBIANSHOUYIDEGUOCHENG。WEIYOUCHONGFENZUNZHONGRENMINYIYUAN,XINGCHENGGUANGFANGONGSHI,RENMINCAIHUIJIJIZHICHIZHIDUJIANSHE、YONGYUETOUSHENZHIDUJIANSHE,ZHENGGESHEHUIDECHUANGZAOHUOLICAIHUIJINGXIANGBENGFA,RENMINDEFAZHANJIHUICAIHUIFENGFUDUOCAI,RENMINDESHENGHUOZHILIANGHESHUIPINGCAIHUIBUDUANTIGAO,ZHONGGUOTESESHEHUIZHUYIZHIDUJIANSHECAINENGHUODEZUIGUANGFANZUIKEKAODEQUNZHONGJICHUHEZUISHENHOUDELILIANGYUANQUAN。

  DIWU,ZHONGGUOTESESHEHUIZHUYIZHIDUJIANSHEZUIZHONGMUBIAOSHIWEILEJIEJUEHAOSHIGUANDANGHEGUOJIAZHANGZHIJIUANDEZHIDUXIANDAIHUAWENTI。DENGXIAOPINGSHUO:“WOMENJINXINGSHEHUIZHUYIXIANDAIHUAJIANSHE,SHIYAOZAIJINGJISHANGGANSHANGFADADEZIBENZHUYIGUOJIA,ZAIZHENGZHISHANGCHUANGZAOBIZIBENZHUYIGUOJIADEMINZHUGENGGAOGENGQIESHIDEMINZHU。”(《DENGXIAOPINGWENXUAN》DI2JUAN,DI322YE。)

  TAQIANGDIAO:WOMENGAIGEKAIFANGDEMUDE,JIUSHIYAOZAIDAFUDUTIGAOSHEHUISHENGCHANLIDETONGSHI,GAIGEHEWANSHANSHEHUIZHUYIJINGJIZHIDUHEZHENGZHIZHIDU,FAZHANGAODUDESHEHUIZHUYIMINZHUHEWANBEIDESHEHUIZHUYIFAZHI,ZHENGTIXINGDITISHENGWOGUOXIANDAIHUASHUIPING。DENGXIAOPINGDEZHIDUJIANSHESHIJIANGAOSUWOMEN,TUIJINZHIDUJIANSHEJIUSHIYAOSHIYINGSHIDAIFAZHANBIANHUA,JIGAIGEBUSHIYINGSHIJIANFAZHANYAOQIUDETIZHIJIZHI,YOUBUDUANGOUJIANXINDETIZHIJIZHI,JIJIJIJIEJIANRENLEIZHIDUWENMINGDEYOUYICHENGGUO,YOUJUEBUZHAOBANBIEGUOZHIDUMOSHI,NULISHIGEFANGMIANZHIDUGENGJIAKEXUE、GENGJIAWANSHAN、GENGJIACHENGSHU、GENGJIADINGXING,SHIXIANDANG、GUOJIAHESHEHUIGEXIANGSHIWUZHILIZHIDUHUA、GUIFANHUA、CHENGXUHUA。ZUIZHONGYIKAOLIANGHAODEZHIDU,YIKAOQIANGYOULIDEZHIDUZHIXINGLI,YIKAOGUOJIAZHILIXIANDAIHUA,SHIXIANDANGHEGUOJIAZHANGZHIJIUAN。SHEHUIZHUYIZHIDUDEJIANLIKAIPILEYITIAODAODALIXIANGJINGJIEDEDAOLU,ERLIXIANGJINGJIEDESHIXIANHAIYAOKAOXINQINLAODONG。CONGJIANCHIZHONGGUOTESESHEHUIZHUYIDEFAZHANLICHENGKAN,SHEHUIZHUYIZHIDUYIJINGJIANLI,BINGZAIZHEIGEJICHUSHANGJINXINGLEGAIGE,ZHONGGUOTESESHEHUIZHUYIZHIDUJIANSHEYIJINGYOULEHENHAODEJICHU。DANGQIANDEZHUYAORENWUJIUSHIWANSHANHEFAZHANZHONGGUOTESESHEHUIZHUYIZHIDU,NULIXINGCHENGYIZHENGTAOGENGJIAWANBEI、WENDING、GUANYONGDEZHIDUTIXI。ZHEIXIANGGONGCHENGJIWEIHONGDA,BIXUSHIZHONGJIANCHITIZHIJIZHIHEZHIDUCHUANGXIN,BUDUANTUIJINGUOJIAZHILITIXIHEZHILINENGLIXIANDAIHUA,YUEGUOYIFENGYOUYILING、CHUANGGUOYIGUANYOUYIKAN,YONGJIANDINGDEZHIDUZIXINWEISHIXIANZHONGHUAMINZUWEIDAFUXINGDEZHONGGUOMENGCHASHANGTENGFEIDECHIBANG。

华夏棋牌  (BENWENZUOZHEHUANGYIBINGXIZHONGGONGZHONGYANGDANGSHIYANJIUSHIDIERYANJIUBUFUZHUREN、YANJIUYUAN)

华夏棋牌     LAIYUAN:ZHONGGUOGONGCHANDANGLISHIWANG